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COMM 102 1-25 - Research(3mainmethods Experiment Survey...

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Scientific Methods in Media Effects  Research (3 main methods) Experiment  Survey Content analysis
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Experimental Method Gathering data under controlled conditions  Controlled: designed and controlled by researcher Violent TV   Aggressive behaviors? (hypothesis) Subjects/parti cipants Violent TV Nonviolent TV Aggression? Aggression? Difference?? Treatment group Control group
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Experiment  Randomization (random assignment) Statistically ensures equivalence in experiment Makes the groups in an experiment            (equivalent)  just  prior to their exposure to the experimental manipulation. Best way to make them identical is cloning Manipulation of independent variable In order to see whether the changes in IV lead to  corresponding changes in DV. Want to make sure violent tv and nonviolent are equal, except for  variable you are manipulating
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Strengths and Weaknesses of  Experimental Research Strengths Can afford the researcher much control Control is researcher’s number 1 strength Can be used to infer causality Correlation Temporal order  ???? Weaknesses Artificial settings (invite pple to lab and its artificial) Generalizability? Can only test short-term effects
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Survey Investigating people by asking questions  directly. Standardized questionnaire Every person receives identical question (way it is asked) Contact methods of survey Face-to-face interviewing (cheaper to use humans) Telephone, mail, email, and web surveys Fax and text-message polls
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Survey Selection of respondents Sampling To represent whole population Population and sample  Random sampling (one method of  sampling) Everyone has an equal chance of being  selected into the sample.
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