L07+attitudes+6 - Attitudes Overview I. II. III. IV....

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1 Attitudes Overview I. Definitions II. Attitudes predicting behavior? III. Persuasion IV. Behavior predicting Attitudes? Attitude Development • Take a moment and write down your attitude about Coke or Pepsi. • Why do you have these preferences? What do you like and why? • What people and experiences contributed to the development of this attitude? I. What are “attitudes”? • Summary evaluations of targets/objects • “Attitude” Object 3 • Attitude objects can be abstract or concrete • Attitude objects can be general or specific Attitude Formation: Personal experience Social Learning Social Comparison Genetic Factors Olson, Vernon, Harris, & Jang (2001) • Tested 195 monozygotic (“identical”) twin pairs and 141 dizygotic (“fraternal”) twin pairs • Assessed attitudes toward a variety of objects, ideas, and behaviors (e.g., smoking, sweets, roller coaster rides, playing chess, public speaking, death 5 coaster rides, playing chess, public speaking, death penalty, etc.) • Found that attitudes were generally more similar in MZ pairs than in DZ pairs • However, non-shared environmental experiences accounted for the most variance in each attitude Functions: Knowledge function Identity function Self-esteem function Behavioral guide function
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2 Attitude Structure: Affect Behaviors how we feel about people or social objects bh i di t d t l Cognitions generalized beliefs about people and social objects behavior directed at people and social objects ABCs Attitudes Overview I. Definitions II. Attitudes predicting behavior? III. Persuasion IV. Behavior predicting Attitudes? II. Attitudes Predicting Behavior Fundamental Issue of this area: as typically stated: attitudes behaviors ? attitude-behavior consistency LaPierre and couple refused 1 x . What percentage of respondents SAID they would NOT serve a Chinese couple? 1. 0-10% 2. 11-25% 3. 26-75% 4. 76-100% General Attitudes Do Not Predict Specific Behaviors Very Well • Based on positive responses to the question, "Do you favor a strong military?", the U.S. Government spent $3 3 billion dollars on Trident submarines $3.3 billion dollars on Trident submarines. • They should have asked taxpayers the question, "Do you favor spending billions of dollars on Trident submarines?" Attitudes Behaviors Do attitudes lead to behavior? Moderators • Situational factors •Con s t ra in t s • Situation selection Simple answer: NO, not as expected Real answer: Depends what you look at •o r ig s •s t reng th •spe c i f i c i t y • Attitudinal factors
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3 Attitudes & Behavior must be measured at the same level of specificity • Will attitude toward religion predict whether one will go to church on a particular Sunday? • Will attitude toward attending church predict whether one will go to church on a particular Sunday?
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2011 for the course PSYCH 280 taught by Professor Bushman during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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L07+attitudes+6 - Attitudes Overview I. II. III. IV....

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