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Unformatted text preview: Morphology & Syntax Morphology
Constituent Structure Today’s goals Today’s
Syntactic categories Constituents Phrases Phrases Syntax (review)
There is a limited number of words but an words unlimited number of sentences sentences Two principles of sentence structure: Two
– Words must appear in a certain order to Words convey a particular meaning convey – Sentences are composed of constituents Sentences (groups of words) that are hierarchically oriented Ambiguity (Lexical) Ambiguity
Nagging wife critical after knife attack. Vatican unveils procreation position. Hemorrhoid victim turns to ice. Hemorrhoid Jerk injures neck, wins award. Police discover crack in Australia. Police Ambiguity (Structural) Ambiguity
Drunk Gets Nine Months in Violin Case. Chou Remains Cremated. Man Eating Piranha Mistakenly Sold as Man Pet Fish. PLO Invited to Raid Debates. PLO SCSC Graduates Blind Senior Citizen. Hershey bars protest. Drunk [Gets Nine Months] [in Violin Case] Drunk Drunk [Gets [Nine Months in Violin Case]] [Chou Remains] Cremated [Chou Chou [Remains Cremated] Where are the ambiguities in these sentences?
Man Eating Piranha Mistakenly Sold as Pet Fish PLO Invited to Raid Debates SCSC Graduates Blind Senior Citizen SCSC Tests for constituency in English
Substitution by pro-form or question word Substitution
– “Sven ate a big slice of pizza” Sven big
Sven ate it What did Sven eat? Movement
– Sven ate pizza at the restaurant Sven at
At the restaurant, Sven ate pizza. Coordination Coordination
– Sven ate a big slice of pizza and a small salad” Sven big small Constituents
How would you divide these Malay sentences into parts? Ahmad | makan | nasi Ahmad Fauzi | makan | roti Orang ini | makan | ikan Orang Anjing itu | makan | tulang besar besar Orang tua itu | makan | Orang pisang Ahmad | makan | ikan besar itu “Ahmad is eating rice.” “Fauzi is eating bread.” “This person is eating fish.” This “That dog is eating a big That bone” “That old person is eating a That banana.” banana.” “Ahmad is eating that big Ahmad fish.” Constituency tests
Replacement (could you replace “that old person” with “Ahmad”?) Constituents must be of the appropriate type. type. Does this work in English?
Sven ate a slice of pizza. slice A slice of pizza landed on Sven’s head. slice Sven put his coffee cup on a slice of pizza. Sven slice *Sven ate a slice of pizza a carrot. slice *A slice of pizza a carrot landed on Sven’s head. Movement
When a group of words can be moved as a unit it is probably a constituent: Replacement by question word Replacement Answer to a content question Answer
Constituents can form the answer to a Constituents content question, while strings of words that don’t form constituents can’t: Hierarchy Hierarchy
A sentence is not just a string of words; sentence the words can be grouped into grammatical units of various sizes. A clause is the smallest grammatical unit clause which can express a complete proposition which Clauses > phrases > words > morphemes Clauses How many clauses are in this sentence?
I have a dog and a dog has me. have She was told by her boss that she should She show up on time and that she was becoming a liability to the company that hired her and thought that she was important. important. Syntactic categories: Lexical Syntactic
Which words belong together in the same Which class? What name (label) should we give to that class? Different languages may have different categories Criteria used to identify word classes are “symptoms” rather than definitions (prototypicality) Assigning words to categories Assigning
– A noun is a person place or thing, but…
The redness of his hair was gripping (quality) It’s 384 miles to Graceland (measurement) Linguists look at grammatical properties:
– Where in the sentence the word appears – What affixes (morphology) the word takes Fool v. foolish Fool
Modification by degree adverb/adjective
– *They are very fools – *They are utter foolish Inflection for number
– *Foolishes Comparative forms
– *fooler/more fool Occurrence as subject
– Foolish rush in. Jabberwocky Again Jabberwocky
'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. "Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!" Phrases
A PHRASE is a group of words which can function as a constituent within a simple clause. clause.
Lower than a clause Two types of evidence for determining Two phrases phrases
– Mutual substitutability Mutual – Sameness of internal structure Sameness Mutual Substitutability
Susan Susan students students you most dogs most some children some my friend from Chile my a huge, lovable bear the Chief Justice of the the Supreme Court Supreme the people that we the interviewed yesterday ____ ran through the park. ____ I would like to have lunch would with __________. Sameness of Internal Structure Sameness
Susan students students you most dogs most some children some my friend from Chile my a huge, lovable bear the Chief Justice of the the Supreme Court Supreme the people that we the interviewed yesterday E.g., E.g., (determiner) (adj) N (determiner) Phrase structure Phrase
Phrases contain a HEAD and optionally Phrases one or more DEPENDENTS. The head
– determines many grammatical features of the determines phrase phrase
The new rice IS in the barn. – the number and types of complements.
I am/feel/look/seem (AdjP) – generally obligatory
*The bigger ate dinner. Major/Minor Categories Major/Minor
– Mostly open class (except PP) – NP, VP, AdjP, AdvP, PP Minor
– Mostly close classed – All others Phrase Structure Phrase
Handout on phrase structure rules. In class activities
– Pg 41 – Pg 47 Homework
– 3a – 3b – 3c ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2011 for the course AL 4012 taught by Professor Crossley during the Fall '10 term at Georgia State University, Atlanta.
- Fall '10