midtermSG (Autosaved) - Political Science Midterm Review...

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Political Science- Midterm Review Lecture One realism : foreign policy as a struggle among states for power and/or security because of the constant threat to their survival, states seek to manage their insecurity through the accumulation of power international organizations are irrelevant to state behavior tool used by states to pursue their own self-interest a realist definition of the international system-the arrangement of the system’s parts and the principle of that arrangement (Waltz 80) market metaphor- order is spontaneously formed by the self-interested interaction of the system’s constituent units the way the international system came about is similar to how a market comes about—morepowerful countries have more influence? self-help system-survival as a prerequisite to achieving all other goals (think Hobbes) DEFINITIONS OF FOREIGN POLICY rational choice : foreign policy as strategic interaction realist decision by self interest-rationalist by bureaucratic approaches : foreign policy as the outcome of institutional processes psychological approaches : foreign policy as a product of individual and small group behaviors constructivism : foreign policy as learning via interaction between states not a finite list but the primary focus of our attention for the semester -Thucydides’ The Peloponnesian War-fought between Athens and Sparta and their allies initiation of the war attributed to the growth of Athenian power and Sparta’s fears of Athenian aggression key themes: the juxtaposition of morality and expediency; the limits of empire, particularly democratic empire; alliances and their role in shaping military outcomes lesson for foreign policy is one of national security and moderation The Mytilenian Debate the city of Mytilene (Lesbos) renounced its alliance with Athens and joined the Spartan forces; Athens conquered the city over the following year debate between Kleon and Diodotus on the punishment to be imposed -Morality didn’t matter- image of cruelty was important The Melian Dialogue -become allies or die, they choose death the Athenian position : “for we both alike know that into the discussion of human affairs the question of justice only enters where there is equal power to enforce it, and that the powerful exact what they can, and the weak grant what they must” (5.89) the Melian position : “we hope to stand as high as you in the favour of heaven, because we are righteous, and you against whom we contend are unrighteous. .. [the Spartans] cannot refuse to help us, if only because we are their kinsmen, and for the sake of their own honour” (5.104) -Hobbes’ Leviathan- The Hobbesian Individual
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all men are created equal in their capacity to do harm to one another competition amongst individuals for survival causes of conflict: competition, diffidence, and glory absence of a common power defines a state of nature/war The Hobbesian State of Nature (Prisoners Dilemma) characterized by the absence of a common power (anarchy)
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midtermSG (Autosaved) - Political Science Midterm Review...

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