studyqs3 - Anthrbio 161 Study Questions for Exam 3 1. What...

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Anthrbio 161 Study Questions for Exam 3 1. What fossils are part of the “hominoid-hominid” phase, and why? a. Sahelanthropus Tchadensis is part of this phase because it has more primitive traits than advanced ones. b. Orrorin Tugenensis is also part of this phase. It also is considered in this phase because it has more primitive than advanced traits. c. Ardipithecus Ramidus is the last fossil part of this group. It is in this group also because it has more primitive than advanced traits. …just be able to recognize? And is that the only “why” 2. Why are the australopithecines considered hominids? What important features distinguish them from apes? What are the dietary adaptations of the australopithecines? a. Australopithecines are considered hominids because they have the characteristics that are unique to hominids and distinguish them from apes including reduced canine size, bipedal locomotion, and a wider pelvis. They had a hard diet of abrasive foods like nuts, seeds and fibrous roots which were tough to chew. (This is found more in robust australopithecines than gracile). To adapt to this they had a sagital crest, flaring zygomatic, large molars and thicker enamel, and a large mandible. 3. Where were the foot prints attributed to the australopithecines found? What is the significance of the footprints? a. The footprints discovered in 1978 show that the footprints made 3.7 million years ago are effectively identical to modern humans. It also shows that they were about 4’8 and 4 ft each and shows they had bipedal locomotion. 4. What is the difference in the pelvis of chimpanzees and humans, and how does this difference influence the prenatal and postnatal development. a. Chimpanzees have taller and narrower pelvises. Humans’ are wider and bucket shaped. This allows them to have bigger babies, which give them a better chance of survival. Also, it makes the birthing process complicated which makes the babies born have large brains but underdeveloped brains which makes parental investment a necessity. 5. What is sexual dimorphism? What is the evidence suggesting that sexual dimorphism existed among the australopithecine species? a. Sexual dimorphism is the percent difference between males and females in body size. There is fossil evidence (from Lucy) that suggests that dimorphism is about the same as modern Homo Sapiens and chimps. 6. What physical characteristics best describe early habilines? What characters distinguish the habilines from the australopithecines? When and where did Homo habilis live? a.
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studyqs3 - Anthrbio 161 Study Questions for Exam 3 1. What...

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