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Exam 1 Review Sheet - CHAPTERS 1-2 SCIENCE AND...

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CHAPTERS 1-2 SCIENCE AND PSEUDOSCIENCE / RESEARCH METHODS The following topics were covered in lecture and/or section: 4 major goals of psychology 1. Describe how people and animals behave 2. Understand and explain the causes of behavior 3. Predict behaviors/reactions across situations 4. Control behavior through understanding its causes and consequences Scientific methods of psychology A toolbox of skills designed to counteract our tendency to fool ourselves Perspectives on psychology (you don’t have to memorize the list, but be aware of what each one of them is) Psychodynamic Sigmund Freud; behavior is explained in terms of inherited instincts, biological drive, and attempts to resolve conflicts; focus is on the unconscious Behaviorist John Watson, B.F. Skinner; primarily concerned with observable behavior that can be objectively recorded Humanistic Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow; emphasizes an individual’s inherent capacity for making rational choices and developing to maximum potential; self- actualization Cognitive human thought and the process of knowing and thinking; behavior occurs because people think Biological focuses on the functioning of the genes, brain, nervous system, and endocrine system; behavior is explained in terms of underlying physical structures and biochemical processes Evolutionary Charles Darwin; importance of behavioral and mental adaptiveness; natural selection Sociocultural cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior Types of research designs and their major characteristics; for what purposes would one select a given design? Naturalistic observation Watching behavior in real-world settings; allows us to better understand the range of behaviors displayed by individuals in the “real world,” as well as the situations in which they exhibit them; major advantage is that this is high in external validity: the extent to which we can generalize our findings to real-world settings; however, low in internal validity, the extent to which we can draw cause and effect inferences; no control over key variables Case studies Researchers examine either one person or a small number of people, often over an extended period of time; there’s no single recipe for how to perform a case study; richness of detail yielded by case studies often affords researchers a valuable source of fruitful hypotheses; the downside is that we can’t generalize these ideas from one person to others in general; advantage is that they are helpful in providing existence proofs, which are demonstrations that a given psychological phenomenon can occur; also provides a valuable opportunity to study rare or unusual phenomena that are hard to re-
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create in the lab; also offer useful insights that researchers can later test in systematic investigations; however, can lead to misleading, wrong conclusions because of their limitations Correlational designs
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