21_hazards1_10_post

21_hazards1_10_post - rds 1 rds 1 1 21 Natural Hazards 1...

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Unformatted text preview: rds 1: rds 1: 1 21: Natural Hazards 1 / Landslides, Floods, and Coastal Hazards Landslide induced by 1964 Alaska earthquake. Photo: S. MacCutcheon Mississippi flooding New Orleans in May 1979. Photo: R. Peterson Beach erosion caused by Hurricane Hugo, South Carolina. Photo: D.M. Busch / O.H. Pilkey, Jr. rds 1: rds 1: 2 Landslides • More property damage is attributed to landslides than any other environmental factor. • In the U.S.A., landslides cause 25-50 deaths and $1-2 billion in property damage each year. • Mass movement / mass wasting : Downhill movement of regolith (soil, sediment, weathered rock) and/or rock under the direct influence of gravity , i.e., without a transporting medium (water, wind, or ice). rds 1: rds 1: 3 Type of Movement Type of Movement Type of Material Type of Material Fall Fall Rock Fall Rock Fall Rock Rock Regolith Regolith Debris: Coarse>Fine Debris: Coarse>Fine Earth: Fine>Coarse Earth: Fine>Coarse Debris/Earth Fall Debris/Earth Fall Rock Slide Rock Slide Debris/Earth Slide Debris/Earth Slide Rock Slump Rock Slump Debris/Earth Slump Debris/Earth Slump Slide Slide Classification of mass movements **Fastest** **Fastest** rds 1: rds 1: 4 Type of Movement Type of Movement Type of Material Type of Material Flow Flow Classification of mass movements Slow: Slow: Creep Creep Fast: Fast: Flow Flow Very Fast: Very Fast: Avalanche Avalanche Rock Creep Rock Creep Debris/Earth Creep Debris/Earth Creep N/A N/A Debris/Earth Flow Debris/Earth Flow Avalanch Avalanch e Velocity scale Velocity scale Extremely Extremely slow slow Very Very slow slow Slow Slow Moderate Moderate Rapid Rapid Very Very rapid rapid Extremely Extremely rapid rapid 0.3m/5y 0.3m/5y rs rs 1.5m/yr 1.5m/yr 1.5m/mon 1.5m/mon th th 1.5m/da 1.5m/da y 0.3m/minu 0.3m/minu te te **Slowest** **Slowest** Creep < Slump < Slide < Flow < Avalanche < Fall Creep < Slump < Slide < Flow < Avalanche < Fall rds 1: rds 1: 5 Types of mass movement • Fall : very fast free-fall of material through air, out of direct contact with slope. Rock fall, Zion National Park, Utah. Photo: S. Allred • Talus : a sloping accumulation of fallen rock or debris at the base of a cliff rds 1: rds 1: 6 • Slides : downslope movement of intact blocks of rock or debris; sliding takes place on a specific surface (e.g., bedding plane) Debris slide in valley in Kyrgystan. Photo: M. Miller Types of mass movement Fig. 16.15 Fig. 16.15 rds 1: rds 1: 7 Types of mass movement • • Slumps : intact blocks of rocks or unconsolidated debris that slide downward and tilt backward along concave-upward sliding surfaces Slump along Genesee Slump along Genesee River, New York. River, New York....
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21_hazards1_10_post - rds 1 rds 1 1 21 Natural Hazards 1...

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