22_hazards2_10_post

22_hazards2_10_post - Globalclimatechange FromIPCC,2007 ds...

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rds 2: rds 2: 1 Global climate change From IPCC, 2007
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rds 2: rds 2: 2 Global change (a) Using all factors listed  in previous slide  Results for computer  models (b) Using 1850 values of  greenhouse gases: fail to  account for observed  warming since 1970 From IPCC, 2007
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rds 2: rds 2: 3 22: Natural Hazards 2 / Volcanoes, Earthquakes,  Tsunamis Mexico City earthquake,  Indian Ocean tsunami,  2004 Mt. St. Helens  eruption,   1980
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rds 2: rds 2: 4 Direct hazards:  Pyroclastic  flows Mount Unzen, Japan, June 1991. Photo: AP Pyroclastic flows : mass of volcanic ash,  gases, and other volcanic fragments that  flows downslope at great speed (100-300  km/hr) Fig. 9.22e
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rds 2: rds 2: 5 Fig. 9.15 Anak Krakatau, 2007 Direct hazards:  Tsunamis 2/3 of  volcano  blown away Krakatau, Indonesia, 1883,  ~36,000 fatalities. Tsunamis  generated by massive  explosion and water rushing  into caldera Amount of material blown out of volcano (including parts of volcano itself) in cubic km
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rds 2: rds 2: 6 Direct hazards:  lahars Lahars : volcanic mudflows produced when  ash mixes with melting snow/ice and  rainfall; travel at speeds of >50 km/hr. Photo:  J. Marso
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rds 2: rds 2: 7 Direct hazards:  volcanic gases Volcanic gases--may poison people and livestock Lake Nyos, Cameroon, 1986;  1742 fatalities CO 2 : denser than air; hugged ground; caused suffocation Fig.  9.23
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rds 2: rds 2: 8 Volcanic ash may bury crops and  collapse roofs (ash mixed with  water is like cement). Mt. Pinatubo,  Philippines, 1991,  200-800 fatalities Fig. 9.22d Direct hazards:  ash
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rds 2: rds 2: 9 Volcanic ash--hazard to aviation; clogs jet engines Direct hazards:  ash
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rds 2: rds 2: 10 10 Lava flows may bury roads, burn houses, cover farm  fields;  very few fatalities Fig. 9.22a Direct hazards:  lava flows
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rds 2: rds 2: 11 11 Photo: USGS Lava flows may bury roads, burn houses, cover farm  fields;  extensive property damage Direct hazards:  lava flows
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rds 2: rds 2: 12 12 Indirect volcanic hazards Disruption of transportation and destruction of crops   cause illness and starvation Photo: Y. Arthus-Bertrand Laki, Iceland (1783-84);  50%  of livestock and  21%  of population died
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rds 2: rds 2: 13 13 Volcanic Hazards:  Summary 1. Pyroclastic flows:  ~30% of fatalities 2. Famine:  ~25% 3. Tsunamis:  ~20% 4. Lahars:  ~15% 5. (a) Volcanic gasses, (b) ashfalls (e.g., roof collapse):  ~10% 6. Lava flows:  ~0% ~ 1. 1. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5a. 5a. 5b. 5b. 6. 6.
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rds 2: rds 2: 14 14 Most dangerous volcanoes
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rds 2: rds 2: 15 15 Most dangerous volcanoes All are  _________________________________.
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rds 2: rds 2: 16 16 Location of most dangerous  volcanoes Nevado del Ruiz Nevado del Ruiz El Chichon El Chichon Galunggung Galunggung Merapi Merapi Kelud Kelud Agung Agung
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2011 for the course ENVSCI 100 taught by Professor A during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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22_hazards2_10_post - Globalclimatechange FromIPCC,2007 ds...

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