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CHAPTER 14 - • Bioaccumulation Toxicants can accumulate...

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CHAPTER 14: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND TOXICOLOGY Central case: alligators and endocrine disruptors at Lake Apopka, FL Environmental health threats: o Physical o Biological o Chemical o Cultural Endocrine disruptors: mimic hormones Radon (odorless gas), lead, asbestos (bad to inhale) Toxicity: degree of ham toxicant can cause TOXICANTS Carcinogens: chem./radiation that causes cancer Mutagens: mutation in DNA – doesn’t necessarily cause cancer Teratogens: affect development of embryo—birth defects Neurotoxin: affect nervous system Endocrine disruptor: affect hormones (thru bloodstream) o Sometimes brain and nervous system too Bisphenol-A in plastic A lot of toxicants thru water Pesticide drift – airborne
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Unformatted text preview: • Bioaccumulation: Toxicants can accumulate and move up food chain • Biomagnification: more toxicants up the food chain (DDT) • Ames test: bacterial assay for mutagens, easy screening of suspected toxins • LD50: 50% of individuals killed from dose o High LD50 = low toxicity o Low LD50 = high toxicity • ED50: dose affect 50% individuals • Threshold dose: response occur after certain dose • Acute exposure: higher exposure over short time • Chronic exposure: lower exposure over long time • Synergistic effects: more than or different than sum of effects • Innocent until proven guilty approach • Precautionary principle approach...
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