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Ch. 1 Lecture Notes SV

Ch. 1 Lecture Notes SV - I What is chemistry and why do we...

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I. What is chemistry and why do we study it? Chemistry: The study of (1) matter and its properties, (2) the changes that matter undergoes and (3) the energy associated with those changes. Why do we study chemistry? - Because everything in the universe is made up of matter (In fact, all matter is made up of about 118 different units, called elements) - Changes to matter are occurring everywhere around us A. Cellular Respiration Food we eat and air we breathe Food Æ C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Æ CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + ATP B. Photosynthesis Conversion of sunlight to sugar (glucose) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + sunlight Æ C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 - Because understanding the microscopic world can be used to understand the properties of the macroscopic world- the things we can see, touch and measure directly A. Why do helium balloons float? B. How do toxic chemicals or exposure to sunlight lead to cancer? C. Why doesn t food stick to Teflon? D. Why do metal objects conduct electricity? - Understanding the macroscopic properties then allows scientists to develop better products that benefit society. A. Create gore-tex B. Develop better materials plastics, semi-conductors, etc. C. Develop better medicines D. Reduce car emissions; alternative fuel sources - Because a basic knowledge of chemistry is important since many fields are grounded in chemistry
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Chemistry Referred to as the central science . Chemistry Oceanography Atmospheric Sciences Economics Physics Medicine Governments Geology Biology Politics People Astronomy Anthropology GOALS FOR COURSE: (1) Learn chemistry and chemical concepts (2) Appreciate the importance of chemistry (3) Become chemically literate so that you can make decisions/judgments about issues in which chemistry plays a role in your life. (4) Develop your problem solving-skills (i.e. think like a chemist/scientist)
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II. Scientific Method: Scientists describe the world around us using a systematic approach called the scientific method. Scientific Method: Systematic approach to research. The approach consists of .. 1. Making observations and looking for patterns. People who spend a lot of time in the sun develop high rates of skin cancer. 2. Developing a hypothesis to explain the observations UV radiation causes cancer. 3. Testing the hypothesis and making predictions. Wearing sunscreen or staying out of the sun will lower rates of skin cancer. 4. Testing the predictions w/ new experiments o gather more data Gather more cancer rate data. 5. Continue to test theory Is all UV radiation bad? DEFINITIONS: Hypothesis - A possible explanation of the observations Theory - Hypothesis that survives the tests of many experiments. HALLMARKS OF A GOOD THEORY: (1) Explains the deficiency of a previous theory. (2) Has predictive power. (3) It is elegant and simple. INTRODUCTORY COURSES Start with the basics; concepts are well-accepted.
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