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Ch.3 Part II Nomenclature Notes

Ch.3 Part II Nomenclature Notes - C111 Eric C Brown Ch 2...

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Unformatted text preview: C111 Eric C. Brown Ch. 2 Lectures VIIII. NAMING COMPOUNDS 0R NOMENCLATURE Nomenclature m Body of rules or standards that chemists use to name compounds. INORGANIC AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Organic Compounds — Carbon is the primary component, usually in combination with hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen. Inorganic Compounds — Primary elemental component is not carbon. - Most compounds in this course will be inorganic compounds. CATAGORIES OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Ionic Compounds — Made of ions, held together by ionic bonds. Molecular Compounds— Made of nonmetallic elements, held together by covalent bonds. NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS - To name ionic compounds one must first be able to name ions. CATIONS - . Cations formed from single atoms and are named according to th element name. Atomic Symbol Element Name Ion Symbol Ion Name ”WWW Ca calczum Ca + calezum ion Na sodium Na+ sodium ion Ag silver Ag+ silver ion 15 0111 Eric C. Brown Ch. 2 Lectures 0 Some transition metals are capable of forming several cations :> the charge is designated by the "stock" number in Roman numerals and "( )". 22:) Remember that the Roman numerals specify the charge of the cation, not the number of metal ions! :::>Roman numerals are not needed for the alkali metals (+1) and alkaline earth metals (+2). Atomic Symbol Element Name Ion Symbol [on Name Mir—N Fe iron Fe ironfll) ion Fe3+ iron(III) ion Cu copper Ca+ eopperfl) ion Cu2+ copperfll) ion 6 Note the following polyatomic cation for which you must know the name. + o . NH 4 ammomum ion ANIONS 0 Anions formed from single atoms and are named by dropping the elemental suffix and adding "-ide." Atomic Symbol Element Name Ion Symbol 1011 Name Cl chlorine Cl" chloride ion P phosphorous P3" phosphide ion 0 oxygen 02" oxide ion I iodine I“ iodide ion Note: Generally, the naming of ions is consistent in a group (see Periodic Table and C1“ and l" in the example above). a Polyatomic anions containing oxygen are called oxyanions. l6 C111 Eric C. Brown ::>They are very common and are named according to the relative amount of oxygen bound to a particular element. ::> If an element combines with oxygen in 2 ways, the anion is named by dropping the end of the element name and adding a suffix: the anion with more oxygen ends in "—ate" the anion with less oxygen ends in "-ite" Ch. 2 Lectures ::> If an element combines with oxygen in 4 ways, the anions with the most oxygen are named by adding prefixes, then by dropping the end of the element name and adding a suffix. The anions with the 2nd and 3ml greatest numbers of oxygen are named by only adding a suffix: the anion with the most oxygen adds the prefix "perm" and ends in "~ate" the anion with 2nd most oxygen ends in ”-ate" (no prefix) the anion with 3rd most oxygen ends in ”—ite" (no prefix) the anion with the least oxygen adds the prefix "hypo-" and ends in "-ite" lon Symbol 804 ’ 8032“ P043” P033’ CIO4” Cl03' ClOg’ CIO" Forming Ionic Compounds lon Name sulfate ion sulfita ion phosphate ion phosphfieion perchlorate ion chlorate ion chlcrtte ion hypochlorite ion 17 Cl 11 Eric C. Brown Ch. 2 Lectures o Ionic compounds are always neutral (have no charge). 0 The correct number of cations (with positive charge) and anions (with negative charge) must be combined to form a neutral compound (no charge). Naming Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds fall into several categories: SALTS, ACIDS, BASES AND METAL OXIDES Salts are compounds formed between a cation and an anion (Note: compounds containing H ,OH, or 02" are special cases and are not considered salts) Hydroxides are compounds formed betWeen a cation and the hydroxide ion (OH) Metal oxides are compounds formed between a metal cation and the oxide ion (02") Acids are compounds formed between the hydrogen ion (H4, also called a proton) and an anion 18 C111 Eric C. Brown Ch. 2 Lectures Naming Salts, Hydroxides and Metal Oxides These three types of compounds are named according to the same rules. ' Writing Formulas 1. Determine the formula and charges on the cation and aion involved in the compound. 2. Combine the ions in a ratio that results in the formation of a neutral compound. The numbers of each element present in the compound are shown as subscripts after the element symbol. Writing Names 1. Both the cation and anion must be named. 2. Always name the cation first, then the anion. Example: Write the formula and name of the compound formed between calcium and fluorine. salt name hydroxide name NaCl sodium chloride NaOH sodium hydroxide NaZSO4 sodium sulfate NH4OH ammonium hydroxide (NH4)ZSO4 ammonium sutfate Fe(Ol—i)2 iron(li) hydroxide Fe(CN)3 iron(i|l) cyanide Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide KCEOQ potassium chiorite CoBrz cobaltfli) bromide metal oxide name K20 potassium oxide FeO iron(£|) oxide F8203 iron(lil) oxide MgO magnesium oxide 19 C1 ll Eric C. Brown Ch. 2 Lectures Example: Name the compound TiOz. o If more than one polyatomic ion is needed to form a neutral compound, parentheses are used atound the entire ion Mg(0H)2 1ngz+ plus 2x(OH') (NH4)ZSO4 2x(NH,:) plus 1x8042' Example: Name the ionic compound Al(N03)3. Example: Write the formula for magnesium phosphate. 20 Cl l1 Eric C. Brown Ch. 2 Lectures TABLES OF COMMON IONS These tables are only a representative sample of some of the more common ions. They are not complete lists of all ions nor do they Show all the possible ions for some elements in the tables. However, you will be responsible only for those ions shown below for Exam #1. COMMON CATIONS Simple cations: +1 hydrogen H +2 beryllium Be lithium Li+ magnesium Mg2+ sodium Na+ calcium Ca2+ potassium K+ strontium Sr2+ rubidium Rb+ barium 832+ cesium 05* copper“) Cu“ +3 aluminum AI?” Complex Cations: +1 ammonium NH4 21 C111 Eric C. Brown COMMON ANIONS Simple Anions: -1 fluoride chloride bromide iodide Complex Anions: -1 cyanide bicarbonate hypoohlorite chlorite chiorete perchiorate nitrate nitrite hydroxide CN" H00; 010" 010.; 0:03" 0104" N03‘ N02- OH" oxide suifida nflflde phospmde carbonate suifate suifite phosphate phosphfie Ch. 2 Lectures 22 Cl 11 Eric C. Brown Ch. 2 Lectures Naming Acids - Acids are compounds that release hydrogen cations (H+) when dissolved in water. They are all found in the aqueous state (aq). For example, HBr —~> 13*“ + Br" For naming purposes, the names of acids will be based on the ions that are created in solution. 0 For acids with H"? bound to a simple anion (one formed from a single atom), the acid is named by adding the prefix "hydro—" to the anion's name, and changing the suffix. to "—ic". ‘ HCl hydrochlorie acid HBr hydrobromjg acid 23 C111 Eric C. Brown Ch. 2 Lectures Naming nonmetal binary compounds The combination of two nonmetals is a molecular compound (they are held together by covalent bonds, rather than ionic bonds). These bitiary compounds are named according to different rules than ionic compounds. 0 name the first nonmetal in the compound first, followed by the second nonmetal flamed as if it were an anion (note however, that it is not an anion!). - use prefixes to designate the sumber of each non-metal atom in the formula. - the prefix "mono" is not needed for the first non-metal in the compound if there is only one atom of that element in the formula. prefixes: mono 1 hexa 6 di 2 hepta 7 tri 3 octa 8 tetra 4 none 9 penta 5 deca 10 Examples: CO carbon monoxide PCI3 phosphorous trichloride N20 dinitrogen monoxide SFs sulfur hexafluortde P205 diphosphorus pentoxtde Note that these prefixes are NOT needed for ionic compounds because the number of each ion preseet can be determined based on knowng the charges of the ions and knowing that the compound would have to be neutral. Example: Write the name of the compound N20. 24 C111 Eric C. Brown Ch. 2 Lectures Nomenciature of Inorganic Compounds FLOW CHART Is it IONIC or MOLECULAR? (ionic compounds are almost always a metal and a nonmetaE; molecular compounds are made of nonmelais) if MOLECULAR, use the molecular compound naming rules Ff IONEC, is it a SALT, METAL OXiDE. 0r HYDROXIDE OR is it an ACE)? (acids always contain ihe H+ ion} if it is a SALT, METAL OXJDE or HYDROXlDE, Name the cation foilowed by the name of the anion (9.9., NaCl a sodium chloride) if it is an ACID, determine what the name of the anion in the acid is, then follow line acid naming rules to name the acid {e.g., HClO4 contains the CIO4' = perchlorate ion, the acid is perchloric acid) ...
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