SMHM 6 - PROTEIN Introduction ..High .There...

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PROTEIN Introduction Protein provides amino acids which are used for fuel and as building materials for body maintenance and repair. Foods from both plants and animals supply protein. High biological value protein matches body amino acid needs and is readily digested. There are nine indispensable amino acids that must be consumed in the diet and eleven dispensable amino acids that the body can make for itself from other amino acids. Digestion of protein begins in the stomach and continues in the small intestine. Use of newly absorbed amino acids depends upon need. Energy needs are met first followed by body maintenance and repair which requires the availability of all indispensable amino acids. Unused amino acids are broken down releasing ammonia and an organic acid that is used to make triglycerides for fat storage. Body protein is in a continuous state of change. As tissues, hormones, enzymes, lipoproteins, albumin, and other body substances age, they are broken down and replaced. In healthy individuals breakdown is balanced by buildup. Many protein substances have functions that require a specific molecular configuration. If a protein is denatured and its configuration is lost, so is its function. When body protein is broken down or deaminated, ammonia, a toxic substance, is released. The liver detoxifies ammonia by converting it to urea. Urea travels to the kidney where it is expelled in urine. Milk and eggs are the protein “gold standard.” The amino acid profile in these foods closely matches that needed for body maintenance and repair. Most foods from animal sources provide a complete protein. Complete proteins contain all the indispensable amino acids in quantities that allow protein synthesis, or buildup, to take place. Except for soybean, foods from plant origin do not contain all the indispensable amino acids and must be combined throughout the day to support protein synthesis. People living in the U.S. obtain most of their protein from animal foods and protein typically contributes 14­17% of daily Calories. Protein needs are calculated using a factor (0.8) provided by the World Health Organization. Individuals who are in training initially experience an increased protein needs, however, as the body adapts needs moderate. Protein supplements can be expensive and should be cost­compared to milk and eggs.
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Learning Outcomes Associate high biological value proteins with typical food sources Define indispensable and dispensable amino acids and identify examples of each Recognize the steps in protein digestion Prioritize uses for newly absorbed amino acid Discuss the "all or nothing" principle Describe protein turnover Connect protein function to configuration Identify products of protein deamination and how the body uses them Explain why milk and eggs are the gold standard Define complete and incomplete protein Match typical foods with amino acid profile based upon plant or animal origin Figure the percentage of total Calories provided by protein in a typical diet
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2011 for the course SMHM 1450 taught by Professor Craft during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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SMHM 6 - PROTEIN Introduction ..High .There...

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