SMHM 7 - VITAMINS Introduction

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VITAMINS Introduction Did you know that your body is unable to manufacture sufficient quantities of vitamins so you must consume them in your diet? In fact, vitamins were first discovered due to their ability to “cure” certain diseases such as survey, rickets, and beriberi. By simply putting the missing vitamin back in the diet, these diseases were cured. More recently, a joint U.S.­Canadian effort has resulted in standardized reference values for vitamins. Reference values are recommended levels of routine intake that promote health. Dietary Reference Intakes include Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Level (UL) for each vitamin. Vitamins are categorized as fat­soluble or water­soluble, based upon their ability to dissolve in water. This property determines a number of vitamin characteristics and establishes how each behaves in the body. There are four fat­soluble and ten water­ soluble vitamins. Discussion of any vitamin includes function, disease associated with deficiency, criticality for health, and good food sources. Supplementing the diet with vitamins is commonplace in the U.S. Those wishing to consume additional vitamins beyond that acquired in food should consider the UL for each and avoid more than double the RDI. Unprocessed foods are the best source of vitamins. Fruits and vegetable are natural sources of vitamins with antioxidant properties. Learning Outcomes Describe the characteristics of substance that is a vitamin Relate Dietary Reference Intakes age groups to needs Outline the components of a Dietary Reference Intake Discuss how nutrient intake over short versus long periods of time relates to health Define the Estimated Average Requirement Differentiate between a Recommend Daily Allowance and Adequate Intake Place Estimated Average Requirement, Recommended Daily Allowance, and Upper Limit in a scale of risk versus benefit Describe the health implications of exceeding the Tolerable Upper Limit
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Explain the difference between fat­soluble and water­soluble vitamins and list characteristics based upon solubility Match vitamin to solubility List typical food sources for both fat­soluble and water­soluble vitamins Recognize vitamin function Connect each vitamin to its deficiency disease Place toxic effect of over­consumption with appropriate vitamin Recommend supplement intake that supports good health Draw implications for vitamin adequacy using natural and processed foods Plan a diet that includes fruits and vegetables that prevent oxidative damage Essential Substances Dispersed throughout the food supply, vitamins are essential, organic substances made by plants and animals. Most vitamins known today were first discovered based upon their ability to cure disease. Recognizing the link between vitamin deficiency and conditions such as rickets and blindness was an important scientific accomplishment of the 20th century. Vitamins participated in a wide range of normal body functions and an
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2011 for the course SMHM 1450 taught by Professor Craft during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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SMHM 7 - VITAMINS Introduction

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