SMHM 8 - MINERALSANDWATER Introduction

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MINERALS AND WATER Introduction Minerals are inorganic substances in foods. Major minerals are needed in amounts greater than 100 milligrams daily, trace minerals in amounts less than 100 milligrams. Availability of any mineral in a food is influenced by the body's ability to absorb it. Mineral absorption is determined by a number of factors including binding agents in foods. Minerals are divided into two groups: electrolytes and elements . Electrolytes include sodium, potassium, chloride, and inorganic sulfate. Electrolytes dissociate into positively and negatively charged ions and can affect the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. In the human body, a difference in ionic character exists between fluid in a cell, which is rich in potassium ions, and fluid outside a cell, which is rich in sodium ions. Cells use energy to maintain this difference which is critical to metabolism. Elements include calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, iron, selenium, iodine, copper, fluoride, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, zinc and more. A diverse food supply moderates concerns about mineral deficiency; however, calcium and iron consumption may still be inadequate for some. It is possible to consume too much of a mineral. Many people living in the U.S. consume too much sodium. There are health implications for both under and overconsumption of minerals. Water is the most abundant substance in the human body. Total intake includes drinking water as well as that in foods and beverages. For most adults, intake comfortably meets needs. The minimum daily requirement depends upon diet, activity level, and environment. Water balance occurs when gain equals loss. Healthy people maintain balance by excreting excess in urine. Urine volume and color suggest hydration status. Dark colored urine suggests that a person is dehydrated. Dehydration contributes to heat stroke. Over a short period of time, changes in body weight point to hydration status. Physiological and psychological factors prompt drinking. It is thought that increased water intake reduces risk of kidney stones. Recent research suggests that, contrary to
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previously held wisdom, caffeine and ethanol (alcohol) consumption does not contribute to dehydration over the period of a day, only in the immediate short term. Learning Outcomes Recognize the difference between major and trace minerals Describe factors that influence the availability of minerals in foods List the major and minor minerals Outline the function of each major mineral Match minerals to typical food sources Connect deficiency to causative mineral Describe the consequence of excess mineral consumption Plan a diet that meets mineral needs by incorporating a variety of foods Discuss adequate water intake Explain water balance Show the relationship between water and hydration Demonstrate how body weight is used to assess hydration Describe the relationship between thirst, hydration, and drinking Outline the relationship between inadequate hydration and kidney stones
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SMHM 8 - MINERALSANDWATER Introduction

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