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WEIGHT MANAGEMENT AND FITNESS Introduction Recent studies tell us that, in the initiation and progress of chronic disease, a lack of fitness is a more significant risk factor than weight. As a result, rapid weight loss is not the best way to reduce your risk. Achieving a healthy weight is important, but an overly aggressive weight loss regime results in loss of muscle tissue as well as fat. As routine Calorie intake changes so does weight. Positive energy balance occurs when you consume more energy than you spend. A positive energy balance causes weight gain. Negative energy balance occurs when you consume less energy than you spend. Negative energy balance causes weight loss. Energy reserves include glycogen, a storage form of carbohydrate, amino acids derived from body proteins, and fat in adipose tissue. During exercise, muscle cells process glucose to gain ATP, which energizes contractions. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the minimal amount of energy that you need when awake and at rest in a relaxed supine position. It is a starting point in determining daily Caloric needs. The thyroid gland regulates BMR, and irregularities in thyroid function have implications for weight management. Your physical activity level (PAL) has a direct influence on the number of Calories that you need each day. Activity Factors for calculating daily energy needs range from very lightly active to vigorously active lifestyles. The metabolic response to food is that energy that is required for the ingestion and digestion of food, and the absorption, transportation and utilization of nutrients. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of the relationship between weight and height. BMI is used to determine if obesity is present. Body fat distribution, whether fat is located in the upper or lower part of the body, provides clues to risk of heart disease, type-2 diabetes, and high blood pressure. Ideal Body Weight (IBW) also is used to determine if an individual is at risk of weight-related chronic disease. IBW is calculated using a different formula for men than for women.
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A pound of body fat represents approximately 3,500 Calories. A reasonable weight loss goal is one pound per week. For some maintaining or increasing body weight is a goal. Moderate exercise accompanied by a balanced diet adequate in energy and protein promotes muscle development and avoids fat deposition. You can calculate the energy content of foods you eat by going to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Composition Tables. Learning Outcomes Describe the relationship between fitness, weight management, and prevention of chronic disease Outline the concept of energy balance List the body's energy reserves in order of use Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic energy production Recognize protein's contribution to total energy needs during physical activity Estimate your Physical Activity Level (PAL) and relate it to daily energy needs Describe the metabolic response to food
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2011 for the course SMHM 1450 taught by Professor Craft during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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