SMHM 10 - Introduction Aslocal,state,,sodoesthefood supply....

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THE BASICS OF FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Introduction As local, state, and regional marketplaces become more global, so does the food supply. Outbreaks of food­borne illness can originate in almost any part of the world and involve exotic agents. A food­borne illness is one that is transmitted through contaminated food or drink. There are more than 250 diseases carried by foods, including those caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites. To avoid food­borne illness, the best strategy is to understand microorganisms and their relationship to the food supply. Foods that are likely to support pathological bacteria are called potentially hazardous foods. Only a small number of all bacteria are pathogenic and risk of illness is dose­ dependent. Bacteria have seven basic needs. Understanding these needs allows you to prevent bacterial contamination and multiplication. Bacteria exist in a tough spore stage and a vegetative stage that is more vulnerable to sanitation practices. Time and temperature, moisture, pH, presence or absence of oxygen, nutrient substrate, and competition from other bacteria all influence bacterial success. Viruses do not grow and multiply in food. Prevention of contamination is critical. Stability of viruses depends upon food composition, viral concentration, and temperature. Boiling temperatures destroy most but not all viruses. Parasites are small, microscopic organisms that require a host to complete their lifecycle. Incidences of trichinosis (found in pork), have dropped in the U.S., while other parasites, such as Anasakis (found in fish), have grown more common. These trends reflect changes in agriculture practices as well as globalization of the food supply. Cooking foods to a minimum internal temperature of 1600F destroys parasites and prevents illness. Good food purchasing and handling practices reduce the risk of food­borne illness. Personal hygiene and environmental cleanliness are important. Cook food to destroy bacteria and parasites. Reheat food carefully.
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Learning Outcomes Define food­borne illness List causative microorganisms Recognize how globalization contributes to outbreaks Recommend strategies for reducing risk Identify potentially hazardous foods Explain how age, health status, and pregnancy influence susceptibility List bacteria responsible for recent outbreaks Outline the seven needs of bacteria Propose ways to prevent bacterial growth and multiplication in food Differentiate between spore and vegetative bacterial stages Place the Temperature Danger Zone on a thermometer Relate water activity to bacteria needs Recognize the pH range of bacteria growth Contrast the oxygen needs of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria List viruses of concern Describe how stability of viruses is influenced by food composition and temperature Define a parasite List parasites commonly associated with food Recommend practices that reduce risk of a parasitic illness carried by food or
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SMHM 10 - Introduction Aslocal,state,,sodoesthefood supply....

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