Chapter_10 - WATER RESORCES Long Island, New York...

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WATER RESORCES
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Long Island, New York • Population has increased enormously so has the requirement for water • Groundwater has dropped by 15m in some areas • Saline water intrusion in coastal areas is now a well-recognized problem. This is from numerous sources: land fills, de-icing materials, industry, household sewage, septic tanks, fertilizers, etc. • The story of western Long Island, Nassau county is characteristic of what is happening in US and world-wide
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The Hydrological Cycle is what keeps water moving and us alive!
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The global water cycle • Water reaches the surface as rainfall or snow. It leaves the surface by infiltration or evaporation and some of it runs off to the oceans. • The amount of water going into the ocean by way of runoff from the land surface (with sand/gravel and chemicals) equals that transported by the atmosphere in the opposite direction. • The table shows that the amount of water that actually serves humanity is less than 1% of the total available water
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Surface Runoff and Sediment • Water that runs off the land surface carries with it sediment that is dislodged from the surface. • Watershed or drainage basin is an area which drains water to the outlet. The drainage divide is a line where a drop of water falling on either side could end up very far apart. • Large drainage basins are always broken up into smaller sub-basins, e.g. the Mississippi River basin consists of the Missouri and Ohio basins
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Factors affecting sediment yield Geology: Clay over shale allows lesser amount of water to infiltrate as compared to sandy soils on sandstone. Topography: The larger the difference between the highest and lowest point in the basin, the greater is the velocity of the river Climate: Type, intensity and duration of precipitation Vegetation: This intercepts rainfall, uses soil water for transpiration and its roots hold the soil and prevent erosion Land use: Agriculture adds lots of runoff and sediment whereas urbanized areas add lot of runoff to the system
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Burnt area has little or no surface vegetation and ends up with lots of overland flow and sediment Similar effects are found with over-grazing
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Vegetation/organic debris may help in forming ecological environments.
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course GEOL 103 taught by Professor Lakshmi during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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Chapter_10 - WATER RESORCES Long Island, New York...

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