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Chapter_16 - GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE 16 Global Change and...

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GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE 16
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Global Change and Earth Science Understand how the earth works and how it has evolved to what we see today Applying this understanding to better management of the environment Earth System science furthers this understanding with linkages between land, air, water and the biosphere
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Discussion Earth’s atmosphere and energy budget Tools to study climate change Impact of increase in carbon dioxide and greenhouse effect Stratospheric ozone depletion Particulates in the atmosphere
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Tools for Global Change Study Geologic Record Sediments in lake or oceans; ice cores which have air bubbles to provide carbon dioxide information Real-time monitoring Observations of rivers (water resources), gas composition of the atmosphere; land use change from satellite data Mathematical models Use of Global Climate Models, GCMs to simulate the impact of changes in earth processes to increase in carbon dioxide, temperature or both
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Determination of Past Climates One problem – No direct evidence of past temperatures and climatic variation Indirect methods must be used to reconstruct past climate – Marine sediments – proportions of CaCO 3 – Oxygen isotopes – ratios of 18 O/ 16 O – Palynology – pollen and spores
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Isotopic Fractionation Occurs because different isotopes of the same elements have a different mass Partial separation of isotopes of the same element during physical (e.g., evaporation ) or chemical (e.g., precipitation) processes. Kinetic isotopic fractionation rate of reaction (lighter move faster) Equilibrium isotope fractionation difference in thermodynamic properties – temperature dependant (lighter have weaker bond)
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Determination of Past Climates Variations in proportions of oxygen isotopes 16 O most abundant oxygen isotope (99.8%) 18 O heaviest oxygen isotope – Differ only in mass - Molecules that contain them do too.
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