Chapter_16 - GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE 16 Global Change and...

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GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE 16
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Global Change and Earth Science • Understand how the earth works and how it has evolved to what we see today • Applying this understanding to better management of the environment • Earth System science furthers this understanding with linkages between land, air, water and the biosphere
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Discussion • Earth’s atmosphere and energy budget • Tools to study climate change • Impact of increase in carbon dioxide and greenhouse effect • Stratospheric ozone depletion • Particulates in the atmosphere
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Tools for Global Change Study • Geologic Record – Sediments in lake or oceans; ice cores which have air bubbles to provide carbon dioxide information • Real-time monitoring – Observations of rivers (water resources), gas composition of the atmosphere; land use change from satellite data • Mathematical models – Use of Global Climate Models, GCMs to simulate the impact of changes in earth processes to increase in carbon dioxide, temperature or both
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Determination of Past Climates • One problem – No direct evidence of past temperatures and climatic variation • Indirect methods must be used to reconstruct past climate – Marine sediments – proportions of CaCO 3 – Oxygen isotopes – ratios of 18 O/ 16 O – Palynology – pollen and spores
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Isotopic Fractionation • Occurs because different isotopes of the same elements have a different mass • Partial separation of isotopes of the same element during physical (e.g., evaporation ) or chemical (e.g., precipitation) processes. Kinetic isotopic fractionation rate of reaction (lighter move faster) Equilibrium isotope fractionation difference in thermodynamic properties – temperature dependant (lighter have weaker bond)
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• Variations in proportions of oxygen isotopes 16 O most abundant oxygen isotope (99.8%) 18 O heaviest oxygen isotope – Differ only in mass - Molecules that contain them do too. Evaporation and
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course GEOL 103 taught by Professor Lakshmi during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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Chapter_16 - GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE 16 Global Change and...

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