final-review - Energy Resources Supply and demand 90% of...

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Energy Resources
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Supply and demand • 90% of all usage is from non-renewable sources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum or soil and 10% from renewable sources such as hydro or nuclear power • Our new energy policy still depends on the non-renewable fossil fuels • Energy consumption has increased in the last decade due to low oil prices
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Formation of coal • Plants decompose in oxygen-deficit environments and form peat • Peat gets buried by sea level rise and sediment deposition to deeper depths • The pressure of overlying sediment layers squeezes the water, organic gases and volatile out and percentage of carbon increases. This forms coal
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Severe environmental problems have been caused in the past when dams holding back coal sludge have either broken or leaked and the water contaminated rivers/water supply. These structures are hazards to the environment if they are not maintained properly
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Fossil fuel and acid rain • Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water in raindrops to form mild acid (pH – 5.6) • Major environmental effects of acid rain include reduction in fertility of soil as acid rain leaches it out; damage to ecosystem as it affects aquatic creatures; damages metallic and some stone human structures
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Summary • Renewable and non-renewable sources of energy • Oil, gas, nuclear energy, coal, hydropower, geothermal, windpower
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Global Change and Earth Science • Understand how the earth works and how it has evolved to what we see today • Applying this understanding to better management • Earth System science furthers this understanding with linkages between land, air, water and the biosphere
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Tools for Global Change Study • Geologic Record – Sediments in lake or oceans; ice cores which have air bubbles to provide carbon dioxide information • Real-time monitoring – Observations of rivers (water resources), gas composition of the atmosphere; land use change from satellite data • Mathematical models – Use of Global Climate Models, GCMs to simulate the impact of changes in earth processes to increase in carbon dioxide, temperature or both
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Global warming Radiation from the sun at 5000C is in the shortwave. The earth and other objects in the atmosphere emit in the longwave (lower temperatures 30C implies higher wavelength). Absorption of radiation by the atmosphere of the
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final-review - Energy Resources Supply and demand 90% of...

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