reviewtest2 - Natural Hazards A review for Test 2 March 16...

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Natural Hazards A review for Test 2 March 16 2010
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Magnitude-Frequency • The magnitude of an extreme event is inversely related to its frequency • The higher the magnitude, the smaller its frequency, i.e. the smaller the probability it will occur any one year • Lower magnitude events can occur more often
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Principles of Hazards Hazards are predictable by scientific methods Risk analysis is an important component of hazards in evaluating the impacts Hazards are linked; an earthquake in a mountainous region can trigger a landslide Events that previously produced disasters, now produce catastrophes as population density has increased Consequences of hazards can be minimized by careful planning and avoiding the obvious
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Disaster Warning and Prediction Identify the location where the disaster may occur. Example earthquakes occur at margins of faults or landslides occur where the soil is lose and slopes are unstable Probability of occurrence – using historical data probability of occurrence can be estimated Precursor events, such a minor tremors before an earthquake or a hurricane that can cause floods and landslides Forecasting such as use the rainfall predicted to estimate river rise downstream Warning – this is the most difficult of the steps as the public has to be in tune with the scientific nature of these warnings. Examples – false warnings makes the public disregard warnings in the future
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Risk Assessment • Risk Determination – probability of occurrence times the consequences • Acceptable Risk – driving is one, but leakage of radiation from nuclear plants is not • Problems and Opportunities – easy – floods; difficult ones are earthquakes and volcanoes which have lesser data
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Human response to hazards is a steady progression from chaos to a Better ordered system prepared to respond to the hazards that caused it
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Anticipatory Response • Land use planning – planting more trees and green spaces to reduce flooding • Insurance • Evacuation plans • Disaster preparedness
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Earthquakes • Earthquake in Haiti • Earthquake in Chile • Read about it http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/re centeqsww/Quakes/us2010rja6.php • http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eq inthenews/2010/us2010tfan/
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Definitions • The place earthquake starts is called epicenter • Epicenter is the location on the surface of the earth above the focus which is the point in the earth where the rocks rupture • Energy released by the earthquake is termed as moment magnitude • Moment magnitude accounts for the physical characteristics of the earthquake, area ruptured on the fault plane, amount of movement/fault slip and rigidity of the rocks
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Definitions (contd.) • Richter magnitude (old definition) was used to describe the energy of the earthquake • Richter magnitude is based on the largest seismic wave produced by the earthquake. • Seismograph
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course GEOL 103 taught by Professor Lakshmi during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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reviewtest2 - Natural Hazards A review for Test 2 March 16...

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