orbital learning objective

orbital learning objective - Periodic Table 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Periodic Table 1 Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic • Frequency (ν ) – # waves per second • Wavelength (λ) – Distance btwn consecutive peaks or troughs in Distance a wave wave • Speed (c) – Electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed Electromagnetic of light of Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic λ α 1 /ν λν = c λ in meters ν in s-1 Hertz (Hz) c = 3.00 x 108 m/s Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Light & Spectral Lines Light • Light through a prism Light • Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, Red, violet violet • ROY G. BIV Spectral Lines Spectral • • • • Hydrogen Helium Mercury Uranium Bohr Atom Bohr • Electrons in motion about Electrons the nucleus in definite, fixed orbits fixed • Each allowed energy Each corresponds to a specific orbit orbit • Energy States or Levels http://www.physics.uc.edu/~hanson/ASTRO/LECTURENOTES/F01/Lec8/BohrAtom.gif Bohr Atom Bohr • Ground State • Excited State Energy Levels Energy • Principal Quantum Number – Whole numbers 1, 2, 3, … – Larger the number Larger • • • the higher the energy Farther from nucleus – larger it is More electrons is can hold Energy level 1 2 3 4 5 6 7... Increasing distance from nucleus Increasing energy Energy Levels Energy • Sublevel – Four different types (s, p , d, f) – Number of subshells = the shell number Sublevel spdf Increasing energy Atomic Orbitals Atomic •s sublevel • One orbital • s orbital • p sublevel • three orbitals • px, py, pz • d sublevel • five orbitals • f sublevel • seven orbitals Electron Spin Electron • How many electrons can a single orbital How hold? hold? • Pauli exclusion principle – An atomic orbital may only hold two electrons – Two electrons must have opposite spin – Spin clockwise or counterclockwise Electron Spin Electron • Hund’s Rule Filling of Orbitals Filling • Aufbau Principle Electron Distribution of Atoms Electron Shell Number Subshell Designation Number of Orbitals Number of Electrons Total Electron Capacity 1 s 1 2 2 2 s, p 1, 3 2, 6 8 3 s, p, d 1, 3, 5 2, 6, 10 18 4 s, p, d, f 1, 3, 5, 7 2, 6, 10, 14 32 Self Learning Self • Click here to view a video on Alkali metal Click here trends trends • Click here to view a video on the Bohr Click here model model ...
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