chapter08 - Chapter 8 Jovian Planet Systems What are jovian...

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Chapter 8 Jovian Planet Systems
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What are jovian planets made of?
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Jovian Planet Composition • Jupiter and Saturn — Mostly H and He gas • Uranus and Neptune — Mostly hydrogen compounds: water (H 2 O), methane (CH 4 ), ammonia (NH 3 ) — Some H, He, and rock
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Jovian Planet Formation • Beyond the frost line, planetesimals could accumulate ICE. • Hydrogen compounds are more abundant than rock/metal so jovian planets got bigger and acquired H/He atmospheres.
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Jovian Planet Formation • The jovian cores are very similar: ~ mass of 10 Earths • The jovian differences are in the amount of H/He gas accumulated. Why did that amount differ?
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Differences in Jovian Planet Formation • TIMING: The planet that forms earliest captures the most hydrogen and helium gas. Capture ceases after the first solar wind blew the leftover gas away. • LOCATION: The planet that forms in a denser part of the nebula forms its core first.
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Density Differences 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Jupit er Sat urn Uranus Nept une Density (g/cc) • Uranus and Neptune are denser than Saturn because they have less H/He, proportionately.
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Density Differences 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Jupit er Sat urn Uranus Nept une Density (g/cc) • But that explanation doesn’t work for Jupiter.
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Sizes of Jovian Planets • Adding mass to a jovian planet compresses the underlying gas layers.
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Sizes of Jovian Planets • Greater compression is why Jupiter is not much larger than Saturn even though it is three times more massive. • Jovian planets with even more mass can be smaller than Jupiter.
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What are jovian planets like on the inside?
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Interiors of Jovian Planets • No solid surface • Layers under high pressure and temperatures • Cores (~10 Earth masses) made of hydrogen compounds, metals, and rock • The layers are different for the different planets — WHY?
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chapter08 - Chapter 8 Jovian Planet Systems What are jovian...

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