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Unformatted text preview: Classical Conditioning Classical Classical Cond. Classical The simplest mechanism whereby The organisms learn about relations between stimuli and come to alter their behavior accordingly. accordingly. Examples Examples
- Animals learn to approach signals for food and salivate when they are about to be fed. be - Learning of emotional reactions such as Learning fear and pleasure to stimuli that initially do not elicit these emotions. do Basic Terms Basic Unconditioned stimulus (US) – a stimulus Unconditioned that naturally triggers a response. that Conditioned stimulus (CS) – an originally Conditioned irrelevant stimulus that after association with the US, comes to trigger a conditioned response. conditioned Basic Terms Basic Unconditioned response (UR) – the Unconditioned naturally occurring response to the US naturally Conditioned response (CR) – the learned Conditioned response to the previously neutral CS response Cont. Cont.
US causes a UR CS (predicts) US CS causes a CR Being Choked Gagging Reflex Homer gets mad (“Why you little . . .”) Being Choked Ned getting mad Gagging Reflex Ned Historical Beginnings Historical
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) and his dogs 1. Originally studied to learn about Originally digestion digestion 2. Technicians noticed increase in Technicians stomach juice secretion at sight of food or even person who fed them or Classical Cond. Terms Classical Acquisition – the stage where the CS-US Acquisition relationship is being learned relationship 1. Temporal contiguity – except taste 1. aversion aversion 2. Spatial contiguity – except auditory 2. conditioning conditioning 3. CS must precede US 4. Biology is a limiting factor Terms cont. Terms Extinction – the diminishing of the CR – Extinction accomplished by the CS not being followed by the US followed Terms cont. Terms Generalization – the tendency for stimuli Generalization similar to the CS to elicit similar responses. responses. 50 Hz tone Food 50 Hz tone Salivation 75 Hz tone Salivation Terms cont. Terms Second-order conditioning – the ability of stimuli Second-order that predict the CS to elicit the CR that Blue Light Blue Light Tone Food Salivation Food Food Blue Light Tone = Salivation ...
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- Spring '08
- Classical Conditioning