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Unformatted text preview: Development Development Laugh Laugh Pedal a tricycle Sit without support Feel ashamed Walk unassisted Kicks ball forward Stand on one foot for 10 seconds Recognize and smile at mother or father Thinks about things that can’t be seen Makes two word sentences Prenatal Development Prenatal Development
4 Stages of Neural Development 1. Proliferation 2. Migration (8-16 weeks) 3. Differentiation 4. Continued Differentiation Prenatal Development Prenatal Development Teratogen – Any disease, drug, or other Teratogen noxious agent that causes abnormal prenatal development. development. Fetal alcohol syndrome Critical Period – an optimal period when an Critical organism’s exposure to stimuli or experiences promotes proper development or hinders development development Newborn Newborn Rooting Reflex Social responsiveness – babies prefer sights Social and sounds that are human-like and Cognitive Development Cognitive Development
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development A. Sensorimotor Stage (0-2) – Experiencing the Sensorimotor world through senses and actions world - Object permanence (objects continue to Object exist when not perceived) develops at about 6 months of age months Cognitive Development Cognitive Development
A. Preoperational Stage (2-7) – Representing Preoperational things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning. logical - Lack of conservation (quantity remains the Lack same despite changes in shape) - Egocentrism – inability to perceive things from another’s point of view from Cognitive Development Cognitive Development
C. Concrete Operational Stage (7-12)– thinking C. logically about concrete events logically - Can now perform conservation and math Can transformations transformations D. Formal Operational Stage (12 and up) - Abstract thinking begins Social Development Social Development
Attachment 1. Body Contact – Harlowes monkeys 2. Familiarity 2. a. Critical period a. b. Imprinting (Konrad Lorenz) 3. Responsive parenting – Secure attachment 3. vs. insecure attachment vs. Parenting Style Parenting Style
1. 2. 3. Authoritarian – Impose rules and expect Authoritarian obedience obedience Permissive – Submit to child’s demands and Permissive impose little punishment impose Authoritative – Demanding and responsive. Authoritative Set rules but explain them and allow exceptions. exceptions. Moral Development Moral Development
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Level I – Preconventional Morality Stage 1 – Punishment Orientation – obeys Stage rules to avoid punishment rules Stage 2 – Reward Orientation – conforms to Stage obtain rewards, to have favors returned obtain Moral Development Moral Development
Level II – Conventional Morality Stage 3 – Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation – Stage conforms to avoid disapproval of others conforms Stage 4 – Authority Orientation – Upholds Stage laws and social rules to avoid censure of authorities and feelings of guilt about not doing ones duty doing Moral Development Moral Development
Level III – Postconventional Morality Stage 5 – Social Contract Orientation – Stage Actions guided by principles commonly agreed on as essential to the public welfare; principles upheld to retain respect of peers and, thus, self-respect and, Moral Development Moral Development
Stage 6 – Ethical Principle Orientation – actions Stage guided by self-chosen ethical principles (that usually value justice, dignity, and equality); principles upheld to avoid self-condemnation principles ...
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- Spring '08