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Unformatted text preview: Americans and Drugs Americans and Drugs Drug Dependency Drug Dependency
“. . . you’re never going to stop the human need you’re for release through altered consciousness. The government could take away all the drugs in the world and people would spin around on their lawn until they fell down and saw God.” their - Dennis Miller Brief History Brief History Deliberate fermentation of alcohol began Deliberate around 6000 BC in Black Sea region around N. and S. American Indians first to use N. tobacco – Columbus noted Indians smoking cigars on San Salvador in 1492 cigars S. American Indians chewed coca leaves as far S. back as 2500 BC back Cont. Cont. Opium poppy cultivated in Mediterranean in Opium 6000 BC – First written reference (4000 BC) comes from Sumeria – “joy plant”. comes Chinese emperor Shen Nung prescribed Chinese marijuana for malaria, gout, and gas pains, 5000 years ago 5000 Aztecs used psilocybin (mushrooms) and Aztecs mescaline in religious ceremonies as far back as 8,000 years as I. Basic Definitions I. Basic Definitions
A. B. A. Psychoactive drugs – Affect feelings, Psychoactive thoughts, perceptions or behavior thoughts, Licit vs. Illicit – legal vs. illegal Examples??? Drug dependence – an individual feels a Drug compulsive need to continue taking a drug. The drug assumes an increasingly central role in the individual’s life. role II. How do we know who is doing II. How do we know who is doing what?
A. B. Monitoring the Future (University of Monitoring Michigan) – surveys around 45,000 8th, 10th, Michigan) and 12th graders every year and National Survey on Drug Use & Health – National conducted by U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services every year. (2005 = 68,308) 68,308) National Survey on Drug Use & Health -2005 Health Conducted by SAMHSA In 2005, 19.7 mil Americans were current illicit drug In users (8.1 % of the pop. over 11) 3.3 mil were drug and alcohol dependent 3.6 mil were drug but not alcohol dependent 15.4 mil were alcohol only dependent In total 9.1% of pop. over 11 is drug or alcohol In dependent 21.8 % of people aged 18-25 are alcohol or drug 21.8 dependent Past Month Illicit Drug Use by Age Past Month Illicit Drug Use by Age (2005 NSDUH) Substance Abuse or Dependence Substance Abuse or Dependence Past Year (12 & older) % Drug or Alcohol Dependent
10 15 20 25 0 5
As ia n Bl ac k H is p an ic W hi te R ac es ia n er ic an In di an Drug Dependence by Race Drug Dependence by Race (2005 NSDUH) Ethnicity
Tw o H aw ai Am Past Month MJ Use x Region (2005) Past Month MJ Use x Region (2005) Illicit Drug Use (12 and older) Illicit Drug Use (12 and older) Use of illicit drug during lifetime? 46.1 % (112 mil) In last year? 14.4 % In last month? 8.1 % Cont. Cont.
Use of marijuana during lifetime? 40.1 % In last year? 10.4 % In last month? 6.0 % 21.6% of high school seniors had smoked 21.6% marijuana over the last month marijuana 7% of 12-17 yr olds had smoked marijuana 7% over the last month over Cont. Cont.
Any drug but marijuana during lifetime? 29.5 % In last year? 8.3 % In last month? 3.7 % Cont. Cont.
Use of hallucinogens (including ecstasy) during Use lifetime? lifetime? 13.9 % In last year? 1.6 % In last month? 0.4 % (1.1 mil) http://oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda.htm#NHSDAinfo http://oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda.htm#NHSDAinfo Lifetime cocaine? Heroin? 13.8 % 1.5 % Last year? 2.3 % 0.2 % Last month? 1.0 % 0.1 % (136,000) Between 1988-1995 Americans spent 57.3 Between billion dollars on illicit drugs. billion Past Month Drug Use by Category (12+) Past Month Drug Use by Category (12+) (2005 NSDUH) Past Month Drug Use by Category, 1217 Past Month Drug Use by Category, 1217 (2005 NSDUH) Past Month Drug Use by Category, 1825 Past Month Drug Use by Category, 1825 (2005 NSDUH) What is the most addictive illicit drug? 2001 National Survey 2001 National Survey
Percentage of people who reported using each of Percentage the following drugs in the past year who are classified as dependent on that drug. classified Heroin 50% (0.2 mil) 50% (0.2 Cocaine 24.9% (1.0 mil) Marijuana 16.5% (3.5 mil) Pain Relievers 11.8% (1.0 mil) Alcohol 9.3% (13.4 mil) Dependence and Abuse x Drug, 12+ Dependence and Abuse x Drug, 12+ (2005) Drug Dependence x Age and Gender Drug Dependence x Age and Gender (2005) Alcohol Alcohol 51.8% (126 mil) of Americans over 11 were 51.8% current users current 22.7% went on a binge in the last month 6.6% are heavy drinkers 28.8% (10.7 mil) of 12-20 yr olds were current 28.8% users users 12.1% of pregnant women consumed alcohol 12.1% in past month (3.9% binged) in Past Month Alcohol Use x Age Past Month Alcohol Use x Age (2005) Past Month Alcohol Use x Race Past Month Alcohol Use x Race (2005 NSDUH) Current Cigarette Use Current Cigarette Use (2002 NSDUH)
Percent that Used Past Month
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Male Female 12-17 18-25 Age 26+ Costs of Drug Abuse Costs of Drug Abuse
Fiscal 1. US gov’t spent $18.1 billion in 2001 to curb US drug abuse drug 2. In 1992, drug and alcohol abuse had an In estimated $245.7 billion economic impact ($97.7 for drugs) ($97.7 Costs cont. Costs cont.
Crime 1. In 1990, 30-45% of all prison sentences related to In drugs drugs 2. Prison cells cost bet $12,000-52,000 per year 3. In 1999, 50% of juvenile male and 40% of juvenile In female arrestees tested positive for marijuana. female 4. In 2005, 26.3% of adults on parole and 29.2% of In adults on probation reported current drug use adults Costs cont. Costs cont.
Pregnancy 1. 3.3% of females reported illicit drug use 3.3% while pregnant while 2. 15.1% of preg females aged 15-17 reported 15.1% illicit drug use (Non-preg = 14.1%) illicit 3. 350,000 fetuses exposed prenatally to illicit 350,000 drugs per year drugs 4. Treatment for drug-exposed babies ranges Treatment from $7,500-150,000 per baby from Costs cont. Costs cont.
Health 1. In 1995, there were 531,800 drug-related In hospital visits hospital 2. In 1999, there were 168,763 cocaine-related In emergency room visits emergency 3. In 1999, there were 19,102 deaths from legal In and illegal drugs and Costs cont. Costs cont.
4. 70% of female AIDS cases are drug related – 4. either sharing infected needles or having a sexual partner who shares infected needles sexual ...
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- Spring '08