Memory - Memory Memory Short­term memory – Stores a...

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Unformatted text preview: Memory Memory Short­term memory – Stores a limited amount of info for no more than about 30 sec without rehearsing it. Long­term memory – Stores an unlimited amount of info for perhaps a lifetime. Types of Memory Declarative (Explicit) – facts or events 1. Episodic – when and where of your life happenings; autobiographical 2. Semantic – persons knowledge about the world; facts B. Non­declarative (Implicit) – no conscious recollection; how to ride a bike A. Cont. Sensory – lasts up to several seconds Echoic – auditory Iconic ­ visual A. Memory I. II. III. Encoding Storage Retrieval I. Encoding Automatic vs. Effortful Examples:??? A. Rehearsal – amnt learned = time spent learning B. Spacing effect – rehearsal works best when spaced out C. Serial position effect I. Encoding Encoding Strategies 1. Meaning – think of examples that are personally meaningful 2. Imagery – mental images help us remember better – mnemonics A. Organizing Info. 1. Chunking (acronyms) 2. Hierarchies A. Chunking Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer are in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae we do not raed ervey lteter by it slef but the wrod as a wlohe and the biran fguiers it out aynawy. Chunking Memorize this number in 10 seconds 121520971879 II. Storage A. Long­term potentiation – increase in synaptic efficiency ­ RNA synthesis increases during learning ­ enriched rats Short term memory – 7 +/­ 2 units ­ Decays rapidly over time ­ Needs rehearsal to become long­term II. Storage Where in the brain? Everywhere ­ Hippocampus ­ Amygdala – emotional memories ­ Cortex ­ Cerebellum – implicit (riding a bicycle) A. III. Retrieval Recall vs. Recognition B. Factors that affect retrieval 1. Distinctiveness – flashbulb memories, von Restorff effect 2. Testing effects – retrieval is helped by previous retrieval 3. Retrieval cues – (Priming –”wakening of associations”) A. III. Retrieval a. Associations – table­chair b. Encoding Specificity – Cues present at encoding will help with retrieval ­ Context (music, odor, temperature, time­of­day, body kinesthetic, pain) ­ Mood ­ State (drunk or high) All have found that retrieval is better under matching conditions IV. Forgetting Proactive and retroactive interference Examples:??? A. Misinformation – incorporating misleading info into one’s memory of an event B. Source amnesia – attribution of a wrong source to an event A. IV. Forgetting D. False Retrieval Mistaken recall of some stimulus or event that did not actually occur Elizabeth Loftus – reconstruction of memory ­ Eyewitness testimony “Did you see a barn in the film?” – direct “Did you see a station wagon parked in front of the barn? – false presupposition Answered yes: direct 15.6%, false 29.2%, control 8.4% IV. Forgetting E. Time F. Repressed memories ­ younger than 3 – don’t believe it ­ drugs or hypnosis – don’t believe it Improving Your Memory Study repeatedly Spend more time actively thinking about the material Make the material personally meaningful Mnemonic devices Improving Your Memory Activate retrieval cues (mood, context, priming) Minimize interference (study before sleeping) Test yourself, especially recall ...
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