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Motivation - Motivation Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of...

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Unformatted text preview: Motivation Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s physiological needs (hunger and thirst) safety needs (need to feel safe, secure, stable) safety belongingness and love needs (need to love and belongingness be loved, be accepted) be esteem needs (need for self-esteem, esteem achievement, competence, respect from others) achievement, self-actualization needs (need to live up to one’s self-actualization fullest and unique potential) fullest Physiological Needs Physiological Met through drive-reduction (aroused state Met that drives the organism to reduce the need) that Homeostasis – balanced internal state 1. temperature (cold = blood vessel 1. constriction) constriction) 2. blood glucose (triggers hunger) 3. water level (triggers thirst) What affects our motivation? What 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Internal state Incentives – external Our own learning history Health Culture Hunger Hunger 1. 2. 3. Hunger Mechanisms Blood glucose levels Hypothalamus monitors through feedback Hypothalamus from the stomach, intestines, liver, blood, etc from Based on glucose levels, hyp signals hunger Based or satiety or Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Lateral hypothalamus – signals hunger stimulation = eating destruction = lack of eating even if starving Ventromedial hypothalamus – signals satiety stimulation = stop eating destruction = overeating even if full Physiology of Obesity Physiology Fat cells – size and number 2. Set point/metabolism – basal metabolic rate Set (rate of energy expenditure at rest) (rate - diet actually decreases BMR 1. Genetic 2. Environmental (family, McDonalds, etc) Exercise and eat a low fat diet!! 1. Achievement Motivation Achievement Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Intrinsic (personal gain, enjoyment, competence, Intrinsic self-actualization, self-esteem) self-actualization, Extrinsic (grades, approval of others, rewards, Extrinsic money, deadlines) money, Sexual Motivation Sexual A. Hormones 1. Direct development of male and female 1. sex characteristics sex 2. Activate sexual behavior a. Estrogen peaks at ovulation and female a. becomes receptive becomes Hormones cont. Hormones b. Male hormone levels more constant but b. loss of testosterone = loss of sexual behavior behavior …but in humans this relationship is not as but straight-forward straight-forward Hormones cont. Hormones 1. 2. Women’s sexual desire is only slightly Women’s higher at ovulation and women have sex throughout menstrual cycle throughout Sexual desire in women actually more Sexual closely related to testosterone levels closely Human Sexual Behavior Human Human sexual motivation influenced by: 1. Physiology 2. External cues (environment) 3. Imagination How do men’s and women’s sexual attitudes differ? attitudes Question: More likely to initiate sex? Masturbates more often? More accepting of casual sex? Consumes more porn? More aroused by visual porn? More aroused by written porn? Men Women Men Women * * * * * * Attitudes cont. Attitudes 48% of women, but only 25% of men report 48% affection as a reason for first intercourse with a new partner 54% of men and 32% of women agree that it is 54% ok for 2 people who like each other to have sex even if they have only known each other for a short while for Attitudes cont. Attitudes Men more likely to mistake warmth and Men friendliness as a sexual come-on friendliness These gender differences apply to These homosexuals as well – gay men more likely to engage in uncommitted sex than lesbians and are more responsive to visual sexual stimuli are Attitudes cont. Attitudes Clark & Hatfield (1989) “Would you like to go to bed with me tonight?” 0% of women said yes 75% of men said yes ...
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