Unformatted text preview: Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning Conditioning Operant cond. Operant Presentation of a US depends on the Presentation subject’s behavior. A particular response (instrumental response) is required to obtain a specific stimulus or consequence. consequence. Terms Terms Primary reinforcer – innately reinforcing Primary stimulus (biological) stimulus Conditioned reinforcer – a stimulus that Conditioned gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer association Shaping – development of a new Shaping response through positive reinforcement of successive approximations of Terms cont. Terms Positive reinforcement – An instrumental Positive response increases in likelihood as a result of a stimulus being presented following the response and not presented in the absence of the response. in Terms cont. Terms Negative reinforcement – if the Negative instrumental response is performed, the aversive stimulus is terminated or prevented from occurring. prevented Punishment – Occurrence of the Punishment instrumental response results in delivery of an aversive stimulus. of Good Bad Give Positive Reinforcement Punishment Take Punishment Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement Schedules Reinforcement Continuous Partial – greater resistance to extinction 1. Fixed–ratio (easier to extinguish) 2. Variable-ratio (harder to extinguish) 3. Fixed-interval (easier to extinguish) 4. Variable-interval (harder to extinguish) Learning by Observation Learning Observational learning – learning by Observational observing others observing Modeling – the process of observing and Modeling imitating a specific behavior imitating Examples Examples
1. Lion cubs learn to hunt by watching Lion their mother their 2. Bandura’s Bobo clown experiments 3. TV violence and child aggression - seven-fold increase in violent play seven-fold after watching “Power Rangers” after ...
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- Spring '08
- Operant Conditioning, observation learning