Unformatted text preview: Psychological Psychological Disorders Which of the following are Which of the following are psychological disorders? Alcohol addiction Depression Mental retardation Alzheimer’s disease Schizophrenia Erectile dysfunction Insomnia Anorexia nervosa Tourette’s Phobias Kleptomania Conversion disorder What is a mental disorder? What is a mental disorder? DSM – IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) of 1. Clinically significant dysfunction 2. Internal source 3. Involuntary manifestation II. Anxiety Disorders II. Anxiety Disorders Distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive Distressing, behaviors that reduce anxiety. behaviors A. Generalized anxiety disorder – continually tense and uneasy for no apparent reason tense B. Panic disorder – sudden intense dread (Tony Soprano) Soprano) II. Anxiety cont. II. Anxiety cont.
C. Phobias – irrational avoidance of a specific C. object or situation (snakes, heights, crowds) object D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder – unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions) (compulsions) - compulsions reduce anxiety caused by compulsions obsessions obsessions How do anxiety disorders develop? How do anxiety disorders develop?
1. Learning perspective a. Fear conditioning b. Stimulus generalization c. Reinforcement d. Observational learning Anxiety cont. Anxiety cont.
1. Biological Perspective a. Evolution – we are scared of what our a. ancestors were scared of ancestors b. Genes c. Physiology – unusually high frontal lobe c. activity activity Disorganized and delusional thinking, Disorganized disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions. emotions 1. Positive symptoms – hallucinations, 1. delusions, inappropriate emotions delusions, 2 Negative symptoms – toneless voice, Negative expressionless face, rigid posture expressionless II. Schizophrenia II. Schizophrenia Causes of Schizophrenia? Causes of Schizophrenia?
1. Brain Abnormalities a. Dopamine overactivity b. Brain anatomy - low frontal lobe activity, thalamus, low shrunken brain tissue shrunken c. Maternal virus during pregnancy Causes cont. Causes cont.
1. 2. Genetics (identical twins have a 50% chance Genetics of being schizophrenic if their twin is) of Psychological factors – reaction to stress? A. B. C. Emotional extremes Depression (feelings of worthlessness, Depression decreased pleasure and interest, depressed mood) mood) Manic episode – hyperactive, wildly Manic optimistic state optimistic Bipolar disorder – alternating between Bipolar depression and mania depression III. Mood Disorders III. Mood Disorders Depression x Race (20042005) Depression x Race (20042005) 1. Biological influences a. Genetics b. The brain - low levels of serotonin and low norepinephrine (drugs like Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil increase serotonin) and Causes of Mood Disorders Causes of Mood Disorders Causes cont. Causes cont.
- less active brains - hippocampus Social-cognitive perspective – outlook on Social-cognitive life can influence your mood life Vicious cycle – negative thoughts create Vicious negative moods and negative moods create negative thoughts negative 1. IV. Personality Disorders IV. Personality Disorders
Behavior patterns that impair social Behavior functioning functioning (for example, histrionic, narcissistic, and (for borderline personality disorders) borderline A. Antisocial personality disorder (psychopath) - lack of conscience - may by ruthless, aggressive, con-artist, very may charming charming As young children, antisocial adolescents As tended to be impulsive, uninhibited, unconcerned with social rewards, low in anxiety anxiety Personality Disorders Cont. Personality Disorders Cont. V. Clinical Diagnostic Tools V. Clinical Diagnostic Tools
1. 2. 3. 4. Interview (client & family/friends) History (family and medical) Direct observation IQ Tests (WAIS) Clinical Tools Clinical Tools
1. 2. 3. 4. Personality tests (MMPI, Big Five) Projective tests (Rorschach, DAPT) Brain Imaging (CAT, PET, MRI) DSM - IV ...
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- Spring '08
- Schizophrenia, Borderline personality disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Antisocial personality disorder, II. Anxiety Disorders