Social Psychology

Social Psychology - Social Psychology Social Psychology I....

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Unformatted text preview: Social Psychology Social Psychology I. Social Relations I. Social Relations Prejudice – “prejudgment” – unjustifiable and Prejudice usually negative attitude towards a group usually A. Social Roots of Prejudice 1. Social Inequality 2. Ingroup (Us) and Outgroup (Them) Social Relations Social Relations a. Ingroup bias – tendency to favor one’s a. own group own 3. Scapegoating – blaming is an outlet for 3. anger anger e.g. – Saddam Hussein, Nazis and Jews Social Relations Social Relations A. Cognitive Roots of Prejudice – stereotypes Cognitive come from how we cognitively simplify the world world 1. Categorization - we overestimate the similarity of people we within groups different from our own within Social Relations Social Relations 1. 1. Vivid Cases – easily remembered and can Vivid bias judgments e.g. Rodney King, Muslims are terrorists e.g. Just-World Phenomenon – people get what Just-World they deserve II. Social Thinking II. Social Thinking A. Fundamental attribution error – the tendency A. when analyzing another’s behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition - e.g. Napolitan & Goethels (1979) e.g. Social Thinking Social Thinking Attitudes and Behaviors Attitudes will guide behaviors if: 1. Outside influences are minimal 2. The attitude is specifically relevant to the The behavior behavior 3. We are keenly aware of our attitudes e.g. – Deiner mirror studies A. Social Thinking Social Thinking Behaviors will guide attitudes if: 1. foot-in-the-door phenomenon – tendency for foot-in-the-door people who agree to a small action to comply later with a larger one later 2. role-playing – Zimbardo’s prison expt (1972) Social Thinking Social Thinking 3. Cognitive dissonance theory – we act to 3. reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. inconsistent. III. Social Influence III. Social Influence A. Conformity – Asch Conformity (1955) line measuring experiments experiments Social Influence Social Influence Social Influence Social Influence B. Obedience – Milgram’s shock experiments - 63% delivered highest shock of 450 volts -65% delivered highest shock with learner -65% who reported a “heart problem” who -93% delivered highest shock when someone -93% else was pushing the buttons else Social Influence Social Influence A. Group Influence 1. Social Facilitation – improved 1. performance of tasks in the presence of others (simple tasks) others 2. Social loafing – people in a group tend to 2. exert less effort exert Social Influence Social 1. Deindividuation – loss of self-awareness and Deindividuation self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity that e.g. – women with hoods (Zimbardo, 1970), e.g. Puerto Rican pride parade Puerto Social Influence Social Influence 1. 2. Group polarization – enhancement of a Group group’s attitudes through discussion within the group the Groupthink – the mode of thinking that Groupthink occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives (e.g. Challenger explosion) explosion) ...
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