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Unformatted text preview: Module 1 --- Article 8 QUICKSTATS WEIGHT AND MORTALITY
Three years ago, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) concluded that, based on US data from the year 2000, being underweight or obese increased the likelihood of death, compared to people of normal weight. Surprisingly, being overweight (but not obese) was associated with a lower risk of death.1 Weight was categorized using the following body mass index (BMI) ranges: underweight (BMI= <18.5); normal weight (BMI= 18.5 to <25); overweight (BMI= 25 to <30); obesity (BMI= 30 or greater). A new study, examining 2004 mortality data, supports and expands on previous findings. “Excess” or “fewer” deaths, noted below, are in comparison to deaths of those with normal weight.
• UNDERWEIGHT was found to be associated with increased mortality, overall, primarily due to increased mortality from noncancer and noncardiovascular disease causes (23 455 excess deaths). Among the underweight, chronic respiratory conditions were primarily responsible for the excess mortality. The authors cite research associating underweight with “increased mortality even after the simultaneous exclusion of ever-smokers or those with cancer, CVD [cardiovascular disease], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or end-stage renal disease.” • OVERWEIGHT was found to be associated with decreased mortality, overall, primarily due to decreased mortality from noncancer and noncardiovascular causes (69 299 fewer deaths). There was increased mortality from diabetes and kidney disease–combined–(13 904 excess deaths). Pertaining to the finding of decreased overall mortality among the overweight, the authors note that there is evidence that, in some cases, “modestly higher weights” may increase the likelihood of survival. These circumstances include “recovery from adverse conditions, such as infections or medical procedures, and with improved prognosis for some diseases.” They suggest that “such findings may be due to greater nutritional reserves or higher lean body mass associated with being overweight.” The authors note that this offers only a partial explanation and that the reasons for the association between being overweight and decreased mortality remain relatively unclear. • OBESITY was found to be associated with increased mortality, overall, primarily due to increased mortality from cardiovascular disease (112 159 excess deaths), diabetes and kidney disease–combined–(33 643 excess deaths), and from cancers considered to be obesity-related (13 839 excess deaths), but not from other cancers. (The authors list the following as types of cancer noted in the medical literature as being obesity-related: colon, breast, esophageal, uterine, ovarian, kidney, and pancreatic.)
1 See the June 2005 issue of The Complete Practitioner or the Subscribers’ Area of our Web site (search Flegal). The citation for the 2005 study is: Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF, & Gail MH. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 293:1861-1867, 2005. Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF, & Gail MH. Cause-specific excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 298:2028-2037, 2007. Support: There was no external funding. ©Copyright 2011 MWK Publishing LLC; from The Complete Practitioner: Mental Health Applications (Vol. 11, No. 1 -- January 2008) For next article, go to next page. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course PCO 4930 taught by Professor Neimeyer during the Spring '09 term at University of Florida.
- Spring '09