Mod1 Art9 - Module 1 --- Article 9 ETCETERA REVISED...

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Unformatted text preview: Module 1 --- Article 9 ETCETERA REVISED ESTIMATE OF DEATHS CAUSED BY OBESITY The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has revised its estimate of the number of deaths in the United States caused by obesity. Weight was categorized using the following body mass index (BMI) ranges: underweight (BMI <18.5); normal weight (BMI 18.5 to <25); overweight (BMI 25 to <30); obesity (BMI ≥30). It had been estimated that of the 2.4 million deaths in the year 2000, approximately 400 000 (16.6%) were caused by obesity, which is most commonly due to “poor diet and physical inactivity.” 1 The revised estimate is 112 000. That is, it is now estimated that, in the year 2000, there were 112000 more deaths among obese individuals than among individuals of normal weight. Most of these excess deaths occurred in individuals younger than age 70. It is also estimated that there were approximately 34000 more deaths among underweight individuals than among individuals of normal weight. Most of these excess deaths among underweight individuals occurred in individuals at least 70 years of age. Being overweight, but not obese, was not associated with an increased risk of death. In fact, the revised estimates indicate approximately 86000 fewer deaths among overweight (but not obese) individuals, compared to those of normal weight. Regarding this surprising finding, the authors state the following: “Some studies have found that overweight was associated with a slightly increased risk of total mortality compared with the normal weight category. Other studies have suggested that overweight (BMI 25 to <30) is associated with no excess mortality, particularly in older age groups.” The authors comment they did not assess the impact of overweight and obesity on health status. However, they note that a recent population-based study found that “overweight and obesity have a strong deleterious impact on important components of health status, including morbidity, disability, and quality of life, and [that] this impact is disproportionately borne by younger adults.” The authors comment that comparisons between the results of survey data from 30 years ago and more recent survey data suggest that “the association of obesity and total mortality may have decreased over time, perhaps because of improvements in public health or medical care for obesity-related conditions. However, such speculation should be tempered by the awareness that these differences between surveys may simply represent chance variation and that small differences in relative risk translate into large differences in the numbers of deaths.” 1 Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, & Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 291:1238-1245, 2004. Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF, & Gail MH. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 293:1861-1867, 2005. As reported by Mokdad et al, the most common external causes of death, in order from most common to least common, were concluded to be: (1) Tobacco; (2) Poor Diet & Physical Inactivity; (3) Alcohol Consumption; (4) Microbial Agents (eg, influenza, pneumonia); (5) Toxic Agents (eg, pollutants, asbestos); (6) Motor Vehicles; (7) Firearms; (8) Sexual Behavior; (9) Illicit Drug Use. Another way of categorizing causes of death is reflected in the following list that does not focus primarily on external causes, although there is some overlap with the above list. The most common causes of death, based on this separate listing of causes (from most common to least common), were concluded to be: (1) Heart Disease; (2) Cancer; (3) Stroke; (4) Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases; (5) Unintentional Injuries (accidents); (6) Diabetes; (7) Influenza and Pneumonia; (8) Alzheimer’s Disease; (9) Kidney Disease; (10) Septicemia (Blood Poisoning). See The Complete Practitioner (April 2004) for statistics related to each of these causes of death. © Copyright 2011 MWK Publishing LLC; from The Complete Practitioner: Mental Health Applications (Vol. 8, No. 6 -- June 2005) ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course PCO 4930 taught by Professor Neimeyer during the Spring '09 term at University of Florida.

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