4 Water and Civilization

4 Water and Civilization - Water Life Humans and...

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Unformatted text preview: Water, Life, Humans, and Civilization Must survive in low-oxygen environments Could not eat other organisms for food The First Organisms Two energy sources: Light and Chemical reactions Light: photoautotrophs Chemical reactions: chemoautotrophs Assemble complex carbon compounds from simple Carbon compounds (CO 2 ) using external energy. The First Organisms The First organisms: Chemoautotrophs (Fe and S) microtubes in pillow lavas containing residual carbon Evidence: Light: photoautotrophs Chemical reactions: chemoautotrophs Must survive in low-oxygen environments Could not eat other organisms for food The Early Organisms Photosynthesizers: photoautotrophs Blue-green algae/cyanobacteria- Removal of carbon dioxide- production of oxygen Earliest: Main effects: The Early Organisms Oldest macroscopic life: stromatolites Cyanobacteria colonies sediments Produced billions of tons of O 2 Stromatolites Oxygen O 2 combined with iron No immediate increase in atmospheric O 2 Colonization of land: Ozone Layer Screens harmful UV radiation Ozone Function: First land plants 480 mya Primates ~30 million years ago Pre-humans ~5-8 million years ago (hominids) Homo sapiens ~200,000 years ago Mammals ~65 million years ago Skipping Ahead Reptiles ~ 245 million years ago Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primata Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: sapiens Human Taxonomy distinct adaptations which may have led to the development of the human species. Hominids Lucy Age: 3.2 million years Family: hominidae Genus/Species: Australopithicus Afarensis Innovation: Walking upright “The earliest celebrity” lead to further anatomical progression Why Stand Up? Postural Feeding Hypothesis Thermoregulatory Model Wading Hypothesis Savanna Hypothesis Hypotheses Savanna Hypothesis Uplift of the Himalayas altered the climate in Africa Lowered rainfall reduced African vegetation Distance between trees increased Hominids forced to spend more time on the ground...
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  • Fall '09
  • Bonczek
  • Homo  sapiens, Saran Wrap Velcro, agriculture iron age, age industrial revolution, users agriculture iron

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4 Water and Civilization - Water Life Humans and...

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