11 Salinity and Carbon II 1

11 Salinity and Carbon II 1 - of salts and erosion of rocks...

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Composition of Ocean Waters
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Salts and Salinity
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Ions Ions are stable forms of elements that acquire an electrical charge by gaining or losing electrons Elements that lose electrons and become positively charged are called cations . Elements that gain electrons and become negatively charged are called anions . Cations: K + , Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ Anions: Cl - , CO 3 -2 , SO 4 -2
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Salts KCl, NaCl, MgCl 2 , CaCO 3 , CaSO 4 Cations: K + , Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ Anions: Cl - , CO 3 -2 , SO 4 -2 Salts are formed by combining cations and anions to form solids that have no charge. K + + Cl - = KCl Ca +2 + 2Cl - = CaCl 2
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Conversely, if solid salts are mixed with water they dissolve and the ions go into solution KCl K + + Cl - NaCl Na + + Cl - Water Water solid solution CaCO 3 CaSO 4 Ca +2 and CO 3 -2 Ca +2 and SO 4 -2
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Ocean Salinity originates from dissolution
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Unformatted text preview: of salts and erosion of rocks and minerals as water moves at or below the earth surface River water contains dilute amounts of dissolved salts that are ultimately delivered to the oceans As water evaporates, the oceans concentrate the salts to levels far exceeding those found in rivers. Average Ocean Salinity = 3.5% What kind of Salts? KCl NaCl MgCl 2 CaCO 3 CaSO 4 River Water 35.15 20.39 12.14 11.67 5.68 5.79 3.41 2.12 Ion Carbonate Calcium Sulfate Silicate Chloride Sodium Magnesium Potassium River Salt Composition Dominated by Carbonate, Calcium, Sulfate, and Silicate KAlSi 3 O 8 CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 NaAlSi 3 O 8...
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11 Salinity and Carbon II 1 - of salts and erosion of rocks...

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