Psyc 015 Final Exam Review

Psyc 015 Final Exam - Final Exam Review Exam 1 Info 1 Indicate the ions and their direction of movement(into or out of the cell that are

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Final Exam Review Exam 1 Info 1. Indicate the ions and their direction of movement (into or out of the cell) that are responsible for the changes in membrane potential for Stages 2-4 in the figure to the right. a. 2. Na+ channels open, Na+ begins to enter cell b. 3. K+ channels open, K+ begins to leave cell c. 4. Na+ channels become refractory, no more Na+ enters the cell then K+ continues to leave the cell, causes membrane potential to return to resting level 2. Describe the two major types of receptors. a. Ionotropic Receptors i. Contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter ii. Contains an ion channel that opens when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attaches to the binding site b. Metabotropic Receptors i. Contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter ii. Activates an enzyme that begins a series of events that opens an ion channel elsewhere in the membrane of the cell when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attaches to the binding site 3. Describe the process of saltatory conduction. a. Conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons ; the AP appears to jump from one Node of Ranvier to the next b. Only place where a myelinated axon comes into contact with the extracellular fluid is at a node of Ranvier c. In myelinated areas there can be no inward flow of Na+ when the sodium channels open because there is no extracellular sodium d. The axon passivelty conducts the electrical disturbance from the AP to the next node of Ranvier i. The disturbance gets smaller but is still large enough to trigger an AP at the next node e. AP gets retriggered at each node and is passed by means of cable properties of the axon along the myelinated area to the next nod e 4. Describe (or draw) the synthesis of dopamine. a. Synthesis of the catecholamines is somewhat more complicated than that of ACh, but each step is a simple one; The precursor molecule is modified slightly until it achieves its final shape; Each step is controlled by a different enzyme, which causes a small part to be added or taken off b. The precursor for the two major catecholamine neurotransmitters ( dopamine and norepinephrine) is tyrosine an essential amino acid i. Start: Tyrosine ii. Step 1: Tyrosine receives a hydroxyl group (OH) and becomes L- DOPA enzyme that adds the hydroxyl group is called tyrosine hydroxylase
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iii. Step 2: L-DOPA then loses a carboxyl group ( COOH ) through the activity of the enzyme DOPA decarboxylase and becomes dopamine . 5. What is the Bell-Magendie Law? In answering this question, describe the experiments performed by Bell and Magendie that led to this law. a. Magendie proved Bell’s law by severing the anterior and posterior roots of spinal nerves in a litter of puppies . Stimulation of the posterior roots caused pain. b.
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course PSYC 015 taught by Professor Rinker during the Spring '11 term at GWU.

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Psyc 015 Final Exam - Final Exam Review Exam 1 Info 1 Indicate the ions and their direction of movement(into or out of the cell that are

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