15_streams_10_post

15_streams_10_post - 15: Surface Processes 2 / Streams...

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eams: eams: 1 15: Surface Processes 2 / Streams Meadering Alaskan river. Photo: P. Kresan Braided streams in Alaska. Photo: G.M. Ashley Incised meanders, San Juan River, Utah. Photo: T. Bean
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eams: eams: 2 Why this is important Streams are major component of the hydrologic cycle powered by the sun and gravity. Plate, p. 552
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eams: eams: 3 Streams carry most of the water that goes from land to sea, in the process transporting billions of tons of sediment. Iguaçu River, Brazil. Photo: D. Nausbaum Why this is important
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eams: eams: 4 Running water is the most effective sculptor of the landscape. Incised meanders, San Juan River, Utah. Photo: T. Bean Why this is important
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eams: eams: 5 Streams are crucial for humans: 1. Drinking water 2. Transportation 3. Waste disposal 4. Recreation 5. Commerce 6. Irrigation 7. Energy Why this is important
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eams: eams: 6 Stream basics Stream : channeled flow of water of any size (river, brook, creek are loosely defined by size) Channel : conduit for carrying water Floodplain : low- lying area surrounding the channel that is normally dry but may become submerged during high stream flows.
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eams: eams: 7 Water budget Fig. 17.2 Gains: rain, snow, melting snow; swamps and lakes; soil moisture; tributaries; upward-flowing groundwater; storm drains, sewage pipes Losses: evaporation, downward-flowing groundwater, pumping
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eams: eams: 8 Stream evolution Fig. 17.3 (a) Sheetwash : overlapping films or sheets of water that move downslope (think of water flowing down a driveway) (b) Faster-moving sheetwash scours a channel. (c) Channel lengthens upslope by eroding at start of channel ( headward erosion ); secondary streams ( tributaries ) join the main stream to form a drainage basin
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eams: eams: 9 Stream evolution Fig. 17.3 Headward erosion in Canyonlands National Park, Utah. Photo: R.W. Schlische
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eams: eams: 10 10 Drainage basins Fig. 17.4 Flat-lying strata of uniform lithology Isolated high 2 sets of fractures Valley & Ridge
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eams: eams: 11 11 Drainage basins / iClicker Q1a. Type of drainage network? A. dendritic B. radial C. rectangular C. trellis Q1b. Type of drainage network? A. dendritic B. radial C. rectangular C. trellis
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eams: eams: 12 12 Divides Drainage divide : ridge that separates one drainage basin from another Fig. 17.5
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eams: eams: 13 13 Divides Fig. 17.6 Continental divide : drainage divide that separates streams that drain into the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
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eams: eams: 14 14 Stream flow Laminar flow : channelized flow paths are all parallel to one another Turbulent flow : irregular flow paths, produced in irregular channels or at high velocities Fig. 17.10
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eams: eams: 15 15 Stream transport Dissolved load : high in humid climates (higher chemical weathering). Suspended load
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15_streams_10_post - 15: Surface Processes 2 / Streams...

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