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Unformatted text preview: Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions 4-1 The emphasis of the various types of analysts is by no means uniform nor should it be. Management is interested in all types of ratios for two reasons. First, the ratios point out weaknesses that should be strengthened; second, management recognizes that the other parties are interested in all the ratios and that financial appearances must be kept up if the firm is to be regarded highly by creditors and equity investors. Equity investors (stockholders) are interested primarily in profitability, but they examine the other ratios to get information on the riskiness of equity commitments. Credit analysts are more interested in the debt, TIE, and EBITDA coverage ratios, as well as the profitability ratios. Short-term creditors emphasize liquidity and look most carefully at the current ratio. 4-2 The inventory turnover ratio is important to a grocery store because of the much larger inventory required and because some of that inventory is perishable. An insurance company would have no inventory to speak of since its line of business is selling insurance policies or other similar financial productscontracts written on paper and entered into between the company and the insured. This question demonstrates that the student should not take a routine approach to financial analysis but rather should examine the business that he or she is analyzing. 4-3 Given that sales have not changed, a decrease in the total assets turnover means that the companys assets have increased. Also, the fact that the fixed assets turnover ratio remained constant implies that the company increased its current assets. Since the companys current ratio increased, and yet, its cash and equivalents and DSO are unchanged means that the company has increased its inventories. This is also consistent with a decline in the total assets turnover ratio. 4-4 Differences in the amounts of assets necessary to generate a dollar of sales cause asset turnover ratios to vary among industries. For example, a steel company needs a greater number of dollars in assets to produce a dollar in sales than does a grocery store chain. Also, profit margins and turnover ratios may vary due to differences in the amount of expenses incurred to produce sales. For example, one would expect a grocery store chain to spend more per dollar of sales than does a steel company. Often, a large turnover will be associated with a low profit margin, and vice versa....
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