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Unformatted text preview: Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions 7-1 From the corporations viewpoint, one important factor in establishing a sinking fund is that its own bonds generally have a higher yield than do government bonds; hence, the company saves more interest by retiring its own bonds than it could earn by buying government bonds. This factor causes firms to favor the second procedure. Investors also would prefer the annual retirement procedure if they thought that interest rates were more likely to rise than to fall, but they would prefer the government bond purchase program if they thought rates were likely to fall. In addition, bondholders recognize that, under the government bond purchase scheme, each bondholder would be entitled to a given amount of cash from the liquidation of the sinking fund if the firm should go into default, whereas under the annual retirement plan, some of the holders would receive a cash benefit while others would benefit only indirectly from the fact that there would be fewer bonds outstanding. On balance, investors seem to have little reason for choosing one method over the other, while the annual retirement method is clearly more beneficial to the firm. The consequence has been a pronounced trend toward annual retirement and away from the accumulation scheme. 7-2 Yes, the statement is true. 7-3 False. Short-term bond prices are less sensitive than long-term bond prices to interest rate changes because funds invested in short-term bonds can be reinvested at the new interest rate sooner than funds tied up in long-term bonds. For example, consider two bonds, both with a 10% annual coupon and a $1,000 par value. The only difference between them is their maturity. One bond is a 1-year bond, while the other is a 20-year bond. Consider the values of each at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% interest rates. 1-year 20-year 5% $1,047.62 $1,623.11 10% 1,000.00 1,000.00 15% 956.52 687.03 20% 916.67 513.04 As you can see, the price of the 20-year bond is much more volatile than the price of the 1-year bond. 7-4 The price of the bond will fall and its YTM will rise if interest rates rise. If the bond still has a long term to maturity, its YTM will reflect long-term rates. Of course, the bonds price will be less affected by a change in interest rates if it has been outstanding a long time and matures shortly. While this is true, it should be noted that the YTM will increase only for buyers who purchase the bond after the change in interest rates and not for buyers who purchased previous to the change. Chapter 7: Bonds and Their Valuation Answers and Solutions 1 If the bond is purchased and held to maturity, the bondholders YTM will not change, regardless...
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