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Unformatted text preview: Child Maltreatment: History
• 1974 – Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act
– Awareness has increased – Reported cases have increased – Mandated reporting Terms: Terms:
• Physical abuse—nonaccidental physical injuries • • •
(hitting, biting, burning, etc) Sexual abuse—genital exposure, fondling, oral sex, intercourse, etc Neglect—lack of proper supervision, denial of life necessities, malnutrition, etc Emotional abuse—acts that could cause serious behavioral, emotional, or mental disorders (harsh criticism, ridicule, threats, etc) Kaufman and Zigler (1987) Kaufman and Zigler (1987)
• Common misconception that if you were abused as a child, you are doomed to be an abuser • 90% of abusers were abused • But, 82% of those abused did NOT become abusers • 30% intergenerational transmission rate Those who did not become Those who did not become abusers:
• More extensive social network • Fewer ambivalent feelings about • • • • pregnancy Healthier babies More angry about abuse Only abused by 1 parent Supportive relationship with other parent What causes parents to abuse their What causes parents to abuse their children?
• • •
Sociocultural factors Parent’s personal characteristics Characteristics of parentchild interaction General outcomes associated with General outcomes associated with abuse:
• Increased risk for behavioral and emotional problems, but not any specific disorder • Similar to other stressors • Protective factor is good relationship with at least one parent Developmental consequences of Developmental consequences of abuse:
• • • • •
Disrupted attachment Disordered peer relationships Distorted view of self School problems Sexual problems Adult outcomes: Adult outcomes:
• • • •
Interpersonal problems Aggression and violence Impairments in selfesteem Problems with behavioral and emotional selfregulation • PTSD, depression, anxiety, panic, eating disorders, personality disorders, sex problems Treatment for parents: Treatment for parents:
• Frame problem in terms of daily discipline problems rather than abuse • Identify stressful situations • Emphasize the painfulness of having to resort to assaultive discipline techniques • Search for alternative strategies Goals: Goals:
• Reduction in aversive parentchild • • • •
interactions Increased positive exchanges Increase skills with nonphysical discipline, reduce use of physical discipline Quicker resolution of conflicts Decrease anger and stress Treatment for children: Treatment for children:
• • • •
Restore sense of trust, safety Reduce feelings of guilt Help child express feelings Deal with attachment issues ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course PYSC 510 taught by Professor Flory during the Fall '09 term at South Carolina.
- Fall '09