Eating disorders overview slides

Eating disorders overview slides - Eating disorders: Eating...

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Unformatted text preview: Eating disorders: Eating disorders: • Appear during passage into adolescence or into adulthood • Early risk factors clash with adolescent challenges • May lead to control over eating to manage stress and physical changes • This, plus compensatory behaviors, can lead to eating disorders Anorexia Nervosa: Anorexia Nervosa: • • • Refusal to maintain normal weight Intense fear of gaining weight Significant disturbance of perception and experience of size • Denial of problems • Weight loss is seen as triumph of self­ discipline • There is never enough weight loss Anorexia Nervosa: • Restricting type: – Lose weight by dieting, fasting, obsessive exercise – More highly controlled, rigid, obsessive – About 50% of people with AN – Episodes of binge eating and purging – Stronger family histories of obesity – Higher rates of impulsive behaviors • Binge­eating/purging type: Anorexia Nervosa: • • • • • • • Serious medical problems common Average weight 25­30% below normal Cessation of menstrual cycles Dry and yellowish skin Fine hair on truck, face, and limbs Sensitivity to cold Cardiovascular and gastrointestinal problems Bulimia Nervosa: Bulimia Nervosa: • • • • More common than AN Binge eating Attempts to conceal binge eating/shame Compensate for binge to prevent weight gain (self­induced vomiting, laxatives, diet pills, exercise, etc) • Purging type or non­purging type • 2/3 engage in purging (usually vomiting) Bulimia Nervosa: • Rigid or absolutistic in thinking— completely in control or completely out of control • Medical consequences include fatigue, headaches, loss of dental enamel Binge Eating Disorder: Binge Eating Disorder: • Binge eating without compensatory • • • • behaviors Periods of overeating with subjective feeling of loss of control Related to higher rates of obesity and weight loss attempts 3.1% in girls, .9% in boys Associated with low self­esteem, depression, suicide attempts AN versus BN: AN versus BN: • Both have distorted body image and bad • • • • • feelings after eating AN 15% or more below body weight BN within 10% of normal weight AN rarely binge, avoid forbidden food BN binge frequently on forbidden food and purge to control weight AN intense drive for thinness Prevalence: Prevalence: • • • AN is .3%, BN is 1% Gender ratio 11:1 for AN, 30:1 for BN Rare among males, but they may be underdiagnosed • Cultural/ethnic differences unclear • Exposure to Western ideals Developmental course: Developmental course: • AN starts in adolescence (14­18), often begins gradually, sometimes stressful event • Poor prognosis for AN • AN highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder Developmental course: • BN diagnosed in late adolescence or early adulthood, but symptoms may be present earlier • Often develops after period of dieting • Greater chance of recovery from BN • In general, maturing into adulthood and getting away from social pressures may help with problem eating or dieting Causes: Biological dimension Causes: Biological dimension • Play minor causal role, but may contribute to maintenance • Eating disorders run in families – Vulnerability is likely what is inherited – Regulates hunger and appetite – Biochemical similarities with depression and OCD • Possible role of serotonin Causes: Social dimension Friday! Friday! Causes: Psychological dimension • AN • BN – Obsessive and rigid, emotional restraint, prefer the familiar, need for approval, low adaptability to change, depression – Mood swings, poor impulse control, obsessive­compulsive behaviors, depression and anxiety • Almost always accompanied by other disorders Treatments: Treatments: • CBT for the individual – Improve distorted beliefs about body image – Reward appropriate eating behaviors – Address cues to binge or purge – Self­monitor • Family therapy to improve communication • Medical interventions/nutritionist when needed; SSRI’s ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course PYSC 510 taught by Professor Flory during the Fall '09 term at South Carolina.

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