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Gender differences slides

Gender differences slides - Gender differences in...

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Unformatted text preview: Gender differences in aggression Gender differences in aggression • Overt aggression—traditional aggression, including fighting, calling names, etc – More common among boys • Relational aggression—subtle form of – More common among girls aggression aims at damaging relationships or reputations, like spreading rumors Maccoby article: General research Maccoby article: General research on sex differences • Generally males and females within the same culture are very much alike • Some replicable differences in math and spatial abilities • But, no sex differences in other aspects of intellectual performance • Results regarding social interactions are inconsistent b/c usually don’t take into account who the social partner is Studies in this area have found: Studies in this area have found: • Boys and girls have more social behavior when playing with same­sex children • Girls are more passive when playing with boys, even though overall passivity is equal • Children spend much more time playing with same­sex partners than opposite­sex ones; these preferences are hard to change Why do we see these sex Why do we see these sex differences? • Most girls find the rough­and­tumble play, orientation towards competition, and dominance of boys aversive • Girls find it difficult to influence boys Influence Influence • Increases after age 3.5 • Girls use polite suggestions, whereas boys tend to use direct commands • Boys are less responsive to polite suggestions, so girls’ method doesn’t work well with boys • Therefore, girls may find it aversive to interact with boys Why do boys not accept influence Why do boys not accept influence from girls? • Maybe boys and girls are differentially reinforced by their parents, but not likely • Maybe children observe their parents’ relationships and model them, but also not likely • We really don’t know why, but there are implications Implications: Implications: • Girls stay nearer to teachers or parents when playing with boys; boys are less assertive when close to adults • Behavior patterns developed by young girls and boys can carry over into same­ sex and cross­sex/romantic relationships during adolescence and adulthood What are these patterns for boys? What are these patterns for boys? • • • • • Larger groups; take up more space Rougher play Mutual interests in activities More concern with issues of dominance Use of restrictive style—tend to derail the interaction (threatening a partner, interrupting, boasting) What are these patterns for girls? What are these patterns for girls? • • • • • Close, intimate friendships with 1­2 others Sharing of confidences More upset if relationship ends Girls bond based on conversation Use of enabling style—supports what the other person is doing and keeps the interaction going What happens when individuals What happens when individuals from these 2 “cultures” interact? • Young women are less likely to receive the reciprocal agreement, opportunities to talk, etc they have come to expect • Men have been used to counterdominance but now are with partners who agree with them and offer enabling responses • Men adapt easier to this change • Women may feel at a disadvantage ...
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