Models of psychopathology slides

Models of psychopathology slides - Conceptual model or...

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Unformatted text preview: Conceptual model or theory Conceptual model or theory • A set of assumptions or principles that are used to analyze, predict, or explain a specified set of phenomenon • Most models of psychopathology grew out of models of personality and individual differences • Most psychologists combine aspects of more than one model Why use conceptual models? Why use conceptual models? • To understand and make sense of human behaviors, to look for commonalities and patterns • More effective and efficient at describing and encoding behaviors • Allows us to make testable hypotheses about future behaviors Problems with conceptual Problems with conceptual models • When one approaches a problem with a pre­existing belief or theory, this could hinder finding a solution • Sticking to one theory – May prevent us from seeing all of the important aspects of a problem – Probably will direct the way we choose to treat a problem How to judge a theory How to judge a theory • • • • • Comprehensiveness Parsimony Empirical validity Testability Usefulness Biological (medical) model Biological (medical) model • Sees abnormalities as illnesses with underlying organic pathology • Pathology can be the result of genes, germs, trauma, illness, brain structures, etc. Genes Genes • Rarely have a direct effect on personality or problems • Rather, seem to create a disposition to develop a disorder or a tendency to respond to the environment in a certain way • Example: Schizophrenia Temperament Temperament • Stable individual differences in style – Activity – Emotionality – Sociability – Aggression – Impulsivity Toxins/Drugs Toxins/Drugs • Exposure can result in changes in – Exposure to mercury – Lead poisoning – Manganese – Marijuana (Video clip) behavior, personality, or cognitive ability Physical illness/Trauma Physical illness/Trauma • Brain damage can lead to personality changes and/or cognitive deficits – Frontal lobe damage can result in decreased ability to plan and use decision­making skills, increased impulsivity, changes in personality Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters • Biochemical currents in the brain that can impact behaviors and mood – Serotonin – GABA – Norepinephrine – Dopamine Strengths of the medical model Strengths of the medical model • Excellent applications for prevention and treatment • There are many very beneficial psychoactive drugs, but they are used less frequently with children. Why? – Potentially dangerous – Disorders like schizophrenia less common – Knowledge about interventions is lacking Weakness of the medical model Weakness of the medical model • Only addresses symptoms • Many psychological problems are also influenced by environmental stressors • So, the medical model is best used in combination with other theories Psychodynamic model (Freud) Psychodynamic model (Freud) • Used to be dominate theory, now much • • • • less of an influence Theory based on conflicts between inner impulses and control Importance of the unconscious Defense mechanisms Unacceptable impulses ­> problems Psychoanalysis is usually not Psychoanalysis is usually not appropriate for children b/c • Children not motivated for intense therapy; not self­referred • Children have difficulty with introspection • Requires a stable personality structure • Many childhood problems result from environmental forces rather than intrapsychic conflict Learning model Learning model • All behavior, appropriate and inappropriate, is learned • Very popular now for treating behavioral problems inchildren • Two major approaches: – Classical conditioning – Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Classical conditioning • Explains how a response that is initially elicited by one stimulus can over time be elicited by a previously neutral stimulus • Good for understanding emotional reactions like anxiety, phobias • Treatment is systematic desensitization Operant conditioning Operant conditioning • Events are determined by their consequences • Behaviors that are followed by positive results are more likely to occur again • Concepts: – Positive reinforcement – Punishment – Schedule of reinforcement Most behavior training programs Most behavior training programs include: • Pinpointing the target behavior • Charting the target behavior • • • Developing an intervention Assessing the intervention Fading out the program – Baseline data – Antecedents and consequences Why is learning theory the Why is learning theory the dominant view? • Optimistic and positive (symptoms can be • • • • changed) Simple and easy to understand Downplays previous life history “Laws” of learning lead directly to interventions Concrete and specific Why is learning theory the dominant view? • Easy to document improvements and changes • Scientific approach • Efficient—cost and time effective Problems/limitations of the Problems/limitations of the learning model • Frequently tries to explain too much • Tends to ignore developmental issues – Applies same “laws” to children and adults – Does not acknowledge that reinforcers change as children get older • Tends to ignore cognitions and thoughts Cognitive­behavioral model Cognitive­behavioral model • Expands on learning theory to include thought patterns • Brings in subjective factors and individual differences • Disorders are at least partly the result of maladaptive thinking patterns • Goal of treatment is to identify the faulty thinking and change it Common terms Common terms • Attributions—typical explanations about the causes of events • Appraisals—interpretation or evaluation of events • Expectancies—judgments about the relative likelihood of certain outcomes, usually derived from past experience and appraisals Examples of CBT w/children Examples of CBT w/children • • • • Problem solving training Impulse control training Perspective training Attribution retraining Limitations of the cognitive­ Limitations of the cognitive­ behavioral model • Children may learn skills, but there is less evidence that they actually use them • Problem of generalization • Training typically too brief • Maintenance effects Family systems model Family systems model • Child and family problems result from • • • • multiple interactions Need to consider entire situation Similar behaviors may be the result of different sets of contributing factors Family system is dynamic Ongoing, self­evaluative approach ...
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