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Research slides - Types of investigations: Types of...

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Unformatted text preview: Types of investigations: Types of investigations: Correlational studies • Naturalistic or observational • Determine whether there is a relation between two variables • Comparisons made between conditions that already exist • Primary limitation is that causality cannot be assumed Classic experimental studies Classic experimental studies • • • Random assignment to groups Experimental control Defining of independent and dependent variables • Main strength is assumption of causality • However, it is often impossible or unethical to assign people to groups Single subject designs Single subject designs • • • • Case studies follow one person Within­subject experimental designs measure data at baseline, then give intervention (A­B­A­ B) Often used at the beginning of a research venture to determine variables of interest or when condition is rare Weaknesses are limited generalizability and potential bias Qualitative research Qualitative research • Focus on narrative accounts • Not concerned with control, isolation of variables • • of interest, measurement, or statistical analysis Can provide an intimate understanding of a situation, increase engagement, identify important dimensions that can be developed into theory Weaknesses include little generalizability, potential bias, no scientific method Study time frames: Study time frames: Cross­sectional design • Involves gathering data at one point in a child or adolescent’s life • Cheaper, quicker, and easier than other types of research • But, does not allow researchers to look at changes over time, which is especially important given developmental considerations Prospective longitudinal design Prospective longitudinal design • Follows same children over time • Can capture developmental processes and changes over time • Limitations include reactivity (study itself can result in changes), age or cohort effects, expense and time constraints, and difficulty keeping in touch with participants Retrospective designs Retrospective designs • Sample identified and asked about behaviors that occurred at a prior point in time • Data is immediately available, but still have some information about development over time • However, data is susceptible to bias and distortion in recall ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course PYSC 510 taught by Professor Flory during the Fall '09 term at South Carolina.

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