Stress slides - Diathesis­Stress Model of Psychopathology...

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Unformatted text preview: Diathesis­Stress Model of Psychopathology Diathesis­Stress Model of Psychopathology Infant temperament (style) Infant temperament (style) • “Easy” – Adapts well, not easily upset, regularity in biological functions – Easily upset, irregular in biological functions, intense negative reactions, drains parents’ energy and patience – Somewhere in between, shy and anxious • “Difficult” • “Slow­to­warm­up” “Difficult” infants • Increased risk for: – Conduct problems – Stormy peer relationships – Academic problems when enter 1st grade • Temperament at age 3 predicts behavioral problems 12 yrs later Diathesis= Diathesis= • What the child brings to the psychopathology equation • Predisposing vulnerability factors – Biological/genetic factors – Characteristic ways of thinking Example Example Depression = 100 units Billy Born w/60 units Joey Born w/10 units School change ­> 20 units Teasing ­> 20 units Stress Stress • Factors that determine level of stress – Duration – Intensity – Controllability – Predictability • Stressors can have a cumulative effect • Stressors often come in “packages” So… So… Childhood Disorders= Diathesis + Stress Genetic studies Genetic studies • Twin studies – Monozygotic twins (MZ): Differences due to the environment – Dizygotic twins (DZ): Differences due mostly to genetics – Compare similarities of adopted children to biological and adoptive parents • Adoption studies 9/11 Video clip Effects of exposure to 9/11 Effects of exposure to 9/11 • • • • • • • Intense fear, helplessness, horror Nightmares, fears, panic for yrs to come Developmental regression Avoidance or acting out events Feel pessimistic, vulnerable, numb Problems in school PTSD Treatment components: Treatment components: • • • • • • • Return to normal routines Validation of feelings (anger, sadness) Preserve memories of the dead Cognitive­behavioral treatments Opportunities to express feelings Develop coping strategies Increase social supports Treatment components (cont.): Treatment components (cont.): • • • • School consultation Reassurance and support Family therapy Antidepressant medication Problems associated w/divorce Problems associated w/divorce • Especially for boys, increased rates of aggressive and noncompliant behaviors, disruptions in school work and peer relationships (lasting 2 yrs) • Findings for girls are less clear (problems often disappear by 1 yr), but may experience delayed problems, like sexual promiscuity Why the gender differences? Why the gender differences? Boys: • More likely to be exposed to parental conflict • • • (parents fight more and longer in front of boys) Interpret family disagreements less positively than girls More likely to respond to stress with externalizing problems Less able to disclose feelings, use supports Developmental status and divorce: Developmental status and divorce: Preschoolers • • • • • • Limited cognitive and social competencies Less able to understand the situation May blame themselves Fears of abandonment, separation anxiety Behavioral regression Typically have close relationship with custodial parent Early school­aged children: Early school­aged children: • • • • Considerable pain and anger Moderate depression Grieve openly Show disruption of learning in school and deteriorated peer relationships Older school­aged children: Older school­aged children: • More likely to perceive one parent as responsible and the other as a victim • More anger • But, better able to cope with additional stressors such as moving and economic change • Better able to use outside social supports Adolescents: Adolescents: • • • Grow up faster Assume greater responsibilities But, become more detached from families, which can be positive or negative depending on what they are doing and who they are with What about divorce causes What about divorce causes problems? • Doesn’t just seem to be parental separation • Major component seems to be degree of martial conflict before or after the divorce • Being removed from a conflictual family may actually produce better adjustment in the long run Remarriage: Remarriage: • Many children experience a resurgence of behavior problems • Younger children eventually form an attachment with a competent step­parent • Adolescents often have more difficulty with this ...
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