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Unformatted text preview: Substance Abuse Substance Abuse
• Heavier and more frequent use with adverse effects
– Failure to fulfill responsibilities at work, school, or home – Use in situations where it is physically hazardous (drunk driving) – Substance use related legal problems – Use despite social or interpersonal problems Substance Dependence Substance Dependence
• Not all drugs produce dependence • Irresistible pattern of repeated self administration that can result in tolerance, withdrawal, and compulsive usage
– Tolerance is when more of the substance is needed to produce similar effects – Withdrawal can range from uncomfortable to lifethreatening What encourages substance use What encourages substance use among youth? Psychological/physical effects: Psychological/physical effects:
• “Lure” of intoxication • The more stressful, negative, and hopeless an adolescent’s life, the more likely he is to use substances to make him feel better, provide a sense of power, or offer escape Acting like grownups: Acting like grownups:
• “Lure” of adult status and power/independence it confers • Tendency for youth to equate substance use with maturity Employment issues: Employment issues:
• Bad jobs that require too much time can interfere with school, cause fatigue, disrupt social relationships, and expose teens to health hazards • Adolescents who work more than 1520 hours per week are more likely to use drugs • Substance use more common at some workplaces (restaurants, construction) Individual characteristics: Individual characteristics:
• Risktakers who crave excitement, are rebellious, avoid school, and feel unaccepted are more likely to use substances • Antisocial, externalizing behavior in early childhood is a risk factor for teenage substance use Friend’s use: Friend’s use:
• Adolescents tend to share the substance use patterns of their friends • Association with a deviant peer group is one of the strongest incentives to use drugs Drug use by entertainers and Drug use by entertainers and athletes:
• Wellpublicized, especially when in trouble • Young people yearn to be like the rich and famous, including using drugs Family problems: Drug use by Family problems: Drug use by family members
• It’s common for children to witness parents using dangerous substances • Parent’s alcoholism is associated with substance use in adolescents, particularly if the children also have conduct problems • Children are more likely to follow parents’ actual examples than their instructions Family problems: Poor monitoring Family problems: Poor monitoring
• Although adolescents want autonomy and independence, close supervision is better • The more regularly parents and children eat dinner together, the less likely the children are to use drugs and alcohol Family problems: Harsh parenting Family problems: Harsh parenting
• Anything that alienates youth and sends them into the company of other rebellious teens is likely to promote substance use • Tendency for poor parenting practices, child drug use, and child antisocial behavior to occur together Family problems: Parents under Family problems: Parents under stress
• Conflict between parents, parental substance use, and negative life events (e.g., parent losing job, death in family, move) increase children’s risk of substance use Disadvantaged neighborhoods: Disadvantaged neighborhoods:
• Children in these areas experience more stress and are more likely to turn to drugs • Drug abuse rates are highest in neighborhoods with high rates of poverty, unemployment, resident turnover, single parent families, and a changing cultural mix Bad schools: Bad schools:
• When teachers are prohibited from smoking in front of students, students at that school have lower rates of substance use • Disadvantaged youth are less likely to use drugs if they report a close relationship with a teacher Cumulative Risk Model: Cumulative Risk Model:
• There is usually no single factor leading to substance use among youth • Use, like other adverse developmental outcomes, is better predicted by the number of personal and environmental risks in a child’s life than by any specific vulnerability factor How can we prevent substance use How can we prevent substance use among children and adolescents?
– Offered in most US high schools – Police officers warn students about the dire physical and social effects of drug use – “Just say no” – Thus far, no credible evidence that DARE works How can we prevent substance use How can we prevent substance use among children and adolescents?
• Life Skills Training (LST)
– Resistance skills – Problemsolving and decisionmaking skills – Skills for increasing selfcontrol and self esteem and relieving stress and anxiety – Assertiveness training – Evidence that LST is effective (Video clip) ...
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- Fall '09