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c33 - Chemistry 9thEdition CHAPTER2 Atoms Molecules and...

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Chemistry  9 th Edition CHAPTER 2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions Lectures written by John Mitchell
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The least you need to know for CH 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter Two-Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 2.1 The Atomic Theory 2.2 The Structure of the Atom 2.3 Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes and their calculations 2.4 The Periodic Table 2.5 Molecules and Ions 2.6 Chemical Formulas 2.7 Naming Compounds (Ionic, molecular and common names) 2.8 Introduction to Organic Compounds
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Chapter 2 Atomic Structure: Key concepts and calculations you must be able to do from CH 2 Key concepts and calculations you must be able to do from CH 2: Historical perspectives: Read these and make sure that you are not just accepting them. I will not ask any history questions but you need to really know that electrons, protons and neutrons exist. Experiments by Rutherford, Chadwick, Millikan and Thomson
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Chapter 2 Atomic Structure: Key concepts and calculations you must be able to do from CH 2 Average Atomic weight not a math average but a weighted average Periodic Table Groups Families Metals, nonmetals, metalloids Diatomics (7) you must know H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 , I 2 (Sulfur is S 8 , Phosphorus is P 4 ) Nomenclature MUST KNOW!
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Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms . 1. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. 2. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. In any compound, the ratio of the numbers of atoms of any two of the elements present is either an integer or a simple fraction. 3. A chemical reaction involves only the separation, combination, or rearrangement of atoms; it does not result in their creation or destruction. 2.1
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2 2.1 Dalton’s Atomic Theory
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8 X 2 Y 16 X 8 Y + 2.1
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J.J. Thomson, measured mass/charge of e - (1906 Nobel Prize in Physics) 2.2
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Cathode Ray Tube 2.2
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e - charge = -1.60 x 10 -19 C Thomson’s charge/mass of e - = -1.76 x 10 8 C/g e - mass = 9.10 x 10 -28 g Measured mass of e - (1923 Nobel Prize in Physics) 2.2
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(Uranium compound) 2.2
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2.2
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1. atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus 1. proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron (-) 2. mass of p is 1840 x mass of e - (1.67 x 10 -24 g) α particle velocity ~ 1.4 x 10 7 m/s (~5% speed of light) (1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry) 2.2
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atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10 -10 m nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10 -3 pm = 5 x 10 -15 m Rutherford’s Model of the Atom 2.2 “If the atom is the Houston Astrodome, then the nucleus is a marble on the 50-yard line.”
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Chadwick’s Experiment (1932) (1935 Noble Prize in Physics) H atoms - 1 p; He atoms - 2 p mass He/mass H should = 2 measured mass He/mass H = 4 α + 9 Be 1 n + 12 C + energy neutron (n) is neutral (charge = 0) n mass ~ p mass = 1.67 x 10 -24 g 2.2
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mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e - 2.2
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Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei X A Z H 1 1 H (D) 2 1 H (T) 3 1 U 235 92 U 238 92 Mass Number Atomic Number Element Symbol 2.3 Atomic number, Mass number and Isotopes
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2.3 The Isotopes of Hydrogen
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