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s15 - Circulation Circulation...

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Circulation Circulation Control of flow and pressure: Central—cardiac output Extrinsic control:  Hormones & nerves Epinephrine, adrenal gland  (adrenaline) Autonomic nervous control The cardiac cycle Medulla: Stimulatory vs. Inhibitory Centers      Relative output determines rate: Accel. Vs. Brake Aorta and carotid body chemoreceptors & baroreceptors      Hypercapnia/Hypoxia stimulates Stimulatory Center Increase in CO—increased blood flow to lungs and tissues Increased excretion of CO  and O 2  uptake      Increase in blood pressure (baroreceptor) stimulates      the Inhib. Ctr. and inhibits the Stim. Ctr. Decrease in CO and, therefore, blood pressure      Decrease in blood pressure has opposite effect      
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Circulation Circulation Control of flow and pressure: Central—cardiac output Peripheral—vascular resistance
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Circulation Circulation Control of flow and pressure: Central—cardiac output Peripheral—vascular resistance Small changes make a big difference: R ~ 1/r 4  
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Circulation Circulation Control of flow and pressure: Central—cardiac output Peripheral—vascular resistance Small changes make a big difference: R ~ 1/r 4 r = 1 vs. r = 2:  1/1 vs. 1/16 = 1/16th  r = 1 vs. r = 0.5:  1/1 vs. 1/0.0625 = 16X
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Circulation Circulation Control of flow and pressure: Central—cardiac output Peripheral—vascular resistance Small changes make a big difference: R ~ 1/r 4   Most vessels can change diameter—arterioles major but veins can also constrict and dilate
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Circulation Circulation Control of flow and pressure: Central—cardiac output Peripheral—vascular resistance Small changes make a big difference: R ~ 1/r 4   Most vessels can change diameter—arterioles major capillaries are exception
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Circulation Circulation Control of flow and pressure: Central—cardiac output Peripheral—vascular resistance Small changes make a big difference: R ~ 1/r 4   Most vessels can change diameter—arterioles major capillaries are exception Nervous control:
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Circulation Circulation Control of flow and pressure: Central—cardiac output Peripheral—vascular resistance Small changes make a big difference: R ~ 1/r 4   Most vessels can change diameter—arterioles major capillaries are exception Nervous control: vasomotor center in medulla
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Circulation Circulation Control of flow and pressure: Central—cardiac output Peripheral—vascular resistance Small changes make a big difference: R ~ 1/r 4   Most vessels can change diameter—arterioles major capillaries are exception Nervous control: vasomotor center in medulla Vasodilatory vs. vasoconstrictor ctrs.
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Circulation Circulation Control of flow and pressure: Central—cardiac output Peripheral—vascular resistance
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