d8 - Program Planning for Success Chapter 14 Factors that...

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Unformatted text preview: Program Planning for Success Chapter 14 Factors that Trigger Program Planning 1) Results of Community Needs Assessment Low fruit and vegetable intake among school-age children High incidence of low birthweight babies High incidence of hypertension among the elderly 2) 2) Mandate from national office or government agency New Wellness Policy requirement for public schools 3) Research findings Trans-fat and heart disease Folate deficiency and neural tube defects Factors Factors that Trigger Program Planning (cont.) 4) Community leader or coalition W ell-known activist groups, political figures, organizations 5) 5) Availability of funding USDA increases funding for WIC Farmers Market Program 6) Government Policy 1 Step 1: Review Community Needs Assessment Identify where health and nutrition needs are not being met and look for gaps in services. gaps Example… W omen indicate that they want to do more to reduce their CHD risk and improve their health. BUT… No current programs exist to specifically help women reduce their CHD risk. Step 1: Review Community Needs Assessment Recognize where existing services are not not adequately addressing nutrition problems, and try to identify the reasons why. Example… Many local restaurants offer “heart smart” or “lighter side” meals on their menus… BUT Many people are not aware of this! Step 2: Define Program Goals and Objectives Goals: Goals: Broad statements of desired changes or outcomes Objectives: Objectives: Specific, measurable actions Objectives have 4 components… 1. 2. 3. 4. The action or activity The target population How success will be measured or evaluated The time frame for meeting the objective 2 Step 2: Define Program Goals and Objectives Three types of objectives: 1. Outcome objectives – measurable changes in health or nutritional status Process objectives – measurable activities carried out by community nutritionist or team member Structure objectives – measurable activities related to budget, staffing, management systems 2. 3. Outcome objectives Example: “By the year 2010, increase calcium intake so that at least 75% of females aged 9 to 19 years consume recommended levels.” Action or activity? Increase calcium intake Target Population? Females aged 9 to 19 Measurement/Evaluation? 75% of these females consume recommended amount of calcium Time Frame? By the year 2010 Process objectives Example: “Each community nutritionist will conduct two nutrition lectures per week over the course of the three month program.” Action or activity? Conduct nutrition lectures Target Population? Community nutritionists Measurement/Evaluation? Two lectures per week Time Frame? Three months 3 Structure objectives Example: “On the last day of each month for the next 12 months, each community nutritionist will submit an itemized statement of expenses related to conducting the program.” Action or activity? Submit itemized statement of expenses Target Population? Community nutritionists Measurement/Evaluation? Statements are submitted each month, on the last day of the month Time Frame? 12 months Step 3: Develop a Program Plan A Program Plan Consists of: Description of proposed intervention Nutrition education component Marketing plan Step 4: Develop a Management System “Management” = Personnel + Data Systems Personnel: Personnel: Employees Data Data Systems: How is data about clients collected and organized? How are outcome measures recorded and analyzed? 4 Step 4: Develop a Management System Consider the COSTS of management! COSTS • salaries for personnel • travel expenses • materials and equipments • office space rental • utilities • janitorial services Step 5: Identify Funding Sources 1. Review budget 2. Identify program elements that require financial support (educational materials, marketing campaign, etc.) 3. Review possible funding sources 4. Prepare and submit grant applications Step 6: Implement the Program The “Action Phase”!... Putting the program into operation Remember that glitches are inevitable… The key is to observe all aspects and consider how program delivery might be improved! 5 Step 7: Evaluate the Program Why Why Evaluate? To gather information for making decisions! making Allocating or redistributing resources Changing program delivery Deciding whether to continue a program Step 7: Evaluate the Program How How are the findings of the evaluation used? To improve the program To justify the program or show accountability To document the program in general Questions to Ask… 1. Did the intervention reach the target population? reach For which participants was the program most most effective? Least effective? Did the program accomplish its goals? accomplish How much did it cost? cost? How did costs compare to effectiveness and effectiveness benefits? benefits? (Was it worth it?) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 Formative Evaluation Testing certain elements of a program before it is fully implemented Examples: Pilot-testing Knowledge/Attitude Surveys Process Process Evaluation Monitoring how a program operates Focuses on activities rather than outcomes activities Compare planned activities to actual activities planned actual Look at participation, which services were participation used, and how often Impact Evaluation Determining whether the program accomplished its stated goals and objectives Focuses on immediate indicators of immediate program success How well did participants learn the material presented? Did their beliefs/attitudes change as a result of the program? 7 Outcome Evaluation Determining whether the program had the desired effect on the health or nutrition status of the target population Focuses on health status indicators health Food intake Morbidity/mortality Lab values (serum ferritin, hemoglobin A1-C, WBC count, etc.) Anthropometric measurements (body fat percentage, waist to hip ratio, etc.) Spread the Word… Word… and Celebrate Your Success! 8 ...
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