OpticsI-01-Intro

OpticsI-01-Intro - Optics I: Introduction A short,...

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Unformatted text preview: Optics I: Introduction A short, arbitrary, condensed history of optics Maxwell's equations The wave equation Cool things that happen to light Total internal reflection Interference Diffraction The laser Nonlinear optics Ultrafast optics The Fourier transform and its key role in optics The History of Optics What is light and what can be done with it? Optics in Ancient History A mirror was discovered in workers' quarters near the tomb of Pharaoh Sesostris II (1900 BCE). Ancient Greeks (500-300 BCE) Burning glass mentioned by Aristophanes (424 BCE) Law of reflection: Catoptrics by Euclid (300 BCE) Refraction in water mentioned by Plato in The Republic Euclid thought that the eye emits rays that reflect off objects. Pyramid of Sesostris II (also known as Senusret II) Ancient Greeks: Ancient light weapons Early Greek and Roman historians report that Archimedes equipped several hundred people with metal mirrors to focus sunlight onto Roman warships in the battle of Syracuse (213 -211 BCE). This story is probably apocryphal. And despite a failed attempt by the Discovery Channels Myth Busters to replicate the feat, in 2005 MIT undergrads set up 127 mirrors in a courtyard to test the idea This story is not apocryphal! Optics in the Middle Ages: Alhazen Arab scientist Alhazen (~1000 AD) studied spherical and parabolic mirrors. Alhazen correctly proposed that the eyes passively receive light reflected from objects, rather than emanating light rays themselves. He also explained the laws of reflection and refraction by the slower movement of light through denser substances. Optics in early 17th-century Europe Hans Lippershey applied for a patent on the Galilean telescope in 1608. Galileo (1564-1642) used one to look at our moon, Jupiter and its moons, and the sun. Two of Galileos telescopes Galileos drawings of the moon Johannes Kepler Discovered total internal reflection Showed why telescopes work Developed a first-order theory of geometrical optics Discovered the small-angle approximation to the law of refraction Johannes Kepler (15711630) Willibrord Snell Willibrord Snell discovered the Law of Refraction, now named after him....
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OpticsI-01-Intro - Optics I: Introduction A short,...

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