Valence Notes - Valence I. Definition The valence of an...

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Valence I. Definition The valence of an element is the number of covalent bonds its atoms form or the charge on its simple monoatomic ion. This property of an element is vital to understanding what organic molecules can form. Because it is determined by electron configuration, an element's valence correlates with its position in the periodic table. II. Ionic bonding Elements on the far left of the periodic table, e.g. alkali metals (group IA) and alkaline earths (group IIA) have low electronegativities and tend to lose their valence electrons to form cations with empty valence shells, e.g. Na + (valence 1) and Mg +2 (valence 2). In contrast, the halogens in group VIIA, on the right-hand side of the table, are highly electronegative and can gain one electron to complete their valence shell octets, e.g. Cl - (valence 1) and Br - (valence 1). Formation of lithium fluoride is an example. The halogens are also capable of forming covalent bonds (See the next section.) III. Covalent Bonding Elements nearer the center of the periodic table commonly complete their valence shells
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course CHEM 2535 taught by Professor Mbbump during the Fall '06 term at Virginia Tech.

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Valence Notes - Valence I. Definition The valence of an...

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